BEHS 343 Parenting Older Children

BEHS 343 Parenting Older Children

BEHS 343 Parenting Older Children

Positive and negative reinforcement would be my preferred strategy to address the oppositional behaviors in my 16-year-old son. Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior is motivated by rewards, which makes the desired behavior more likely to recur (Edwards & Poling, 2020). This is a positive parenting practice that is effective in enhancing the welfare and psychosocial development of children. Negative reinforcement involves removing a stimulus as the outcome of behavior, which leads to a positive outcome for an individual (Edwards & Poling, 2020). I would employ positive and negative reinforcement to alleviate his unwanted behaviors and promote healthy behaviors. It also helps to prevent psychosocial and mental health difficulties in children and adolescents.

I will use positive reinforcement by promising to buy him something he has been wishing for or pay for a trip if his grades continuously improve and if he attains a certain target. Furthermore, I will use negative reinforcement by taking his mobile phone and changing the curfew to 8 pm if he gets home after the curfew time. However, I would avoid making the decisions on the reward and punishment without informing him and would communicate them prior to avoid further resistance (Rincón et al., 2018).

Regarding my daughter, it will be important first to recognize that bullying is a problem for this girl. The child may be in psychological distress, and bullying puts her at risk of anxiety and depressive disorder. Interventions for my daughter will include applying empathetic listening to the girl and understanding her view about being teased at school and cyberbullying. I would also involve her teachers so that they can discourage teasing and bullying (Armitage, 2021). However, I would avoid blaming the girl for exposing herself to bullying since it would worsen her emotional well-being and worsen her school-refusal behavior.


Armitage, R. (2021). Bullying in children: impact on child health. BMJ paediatrics open5(1), e000939.

Edwards, T. L., & Poling, A. (2020). Motivating Operations and Negative Reinforcement. Perspectives on behavior science43(4), 761–778.

Rincón, P., Cova, F., Saldivia, S., Bustos, C., Grandón, P., Inostroza, C., Streiner, D., Bühring, V., & King, M. (2018). Effectiveness of a Positive Parental Practices Training Program for Chilean Preschoolers’ Families: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Frontiers in psychology9, 1751.

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Part 1:

The selected nursing problem for the project is catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). CAUTIs are

BEHS 343 Parenting Older Children
BEHS 343 Parenting Older Children

infections that patients develop following their insertion with urinary catheters. The issue was selected because of it is a safety and quality issue in nursing practice that is preventable (Smith et al., 2019). Statistics shows that CAUTIs affect about 11 million people in America and 150 million people globally annualy. The statistics make CAUTIs the leading type of hospital-acquired infection globally (Flores-Mireles et al., 2019). CAUTIs have adverse health effects. They act as a source of immense disease burden to the population due to their associated costs. CAUTs prolonge the patients’ hospital stay, demand for specialized care, which increase unnecessary costs for them. CAUTIs may also result in complications such as septicemia, which can lead to death. The risk factors associated with CAUTIs include the use of septic techniques, prolonged catheterization, and poor catheter care by the nurses and other healthcare providers. The topic of CAUTIs is relevant to nursing practice because nurses are primarily involved urinary catheter insertion, care, and removal. The actions they take determine the predisposition of patients to urinary tract infections following catheterization (Podkovik et al., 2019). Therefore, the problem should examined to inform the utilization of best practices in catheter insertion, care, and removal.

Part II: In the table below, describe the population and the intervention. (You will continue drafting the PICOT, completing the shaded areas in Topic 3.)

PICOT Question
P Population Patients being catheterized
I Intervention Use of bundled intervention
C Comparison Usual care
O Outcome Reduction in CAUTIS rate by at least 50%
T Timeframe Eight months
PICOT Among patients requiring urinary catheterization in the medical and surgical ward, does the use of bundled intervention as compared to usual care result in at least 50% reduction in CAUTIs within eight months?



Problem Statement  







Flores-Mireles, A., Hreha, T. N., & Hunstad, D. A. (2019). Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 25(3), 228–240.

Podkovik, S., Toor, H., Gattupalli, M., Kashyap, S., Brazdzionis, J., Patchana, T., Bonda, S., Wong, S., Kang, C., Mo, K., Wacker, M. R., Miulli, D. E., & Wang, S. (2019). Prevalence of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Neurosurgical Intensive Care Patients—The Overdiagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections. Cureus, 11(8), e5494.

Smith, D. R. M., Pouwels, K. B., Hopkins, S., Naylor, N. R., Smieszek, T., & Robotham, J. V. (2019). Epidemiology and health-economic burden of urinary-catheter-associated infection in English NHS hospitals: A probabilistic modelling study. The Journal of Hospital Infection, 103(1), 44–54.