BIOL 301 6382 College freshman Aaron has Type I insulin-dependent diabetes

BIOL 301 6382 College freshman Aaron has Type I insulin-dependent diabetes

BIOL 301 6382 College freshman Aaron has Type I insulin-dependent diabetes

Kidney Failure

Kidney failure occurs when the kidney has stopped functioning normally. The kidney is responsible for eliminating waste from the body; hence, waste cannot be eliminated properly. One of the major problems of kidney failure is fluid retention, which causes edema in various parts of the body such as pulmonary congestion or lower extremities edema. For example, the patient noticed lower extremities edema, which prompted the need to visit the hospital. Fluid retention occurs in kidney failure because of urinary protein loss and glomerular damage, which necessitates reabsorption of albumin and increases urine protease concentration (Patil & Salunke, 2020). The resultant effect is the retention of water and renal salt, leading to fluid retention. Fluid retention may cause further problems such as shortness of breath, which affects the respiratory system.

Another problem encountered in kidney failure is unclean blood since the kidney is unable to do its function of

BIOL 301 6382 College freshman Aaron has Type I insulin-dependent diabetes
BIOL 301 6382 College freshman Aaron has Type I insulin-dependent diabetes

cleansing. The body functions properly on clean blood; hence, a deficit in this can cause problems starting with tiredness that later translates to seizures or coma if the uremia remains untreated. Similarly, if the kidney fails in its function of filtering food, the body might accumulate dangerous levels of waste, which is highly dangerous (Shah et al., 2020). Moreover, the body’s electrolytes may become imbalanced as the kidney fails to regulate the ions. Other problems experienced during kidney failure include fatigue and drowsiness, passing little to no urine, confusion, insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, and muscle twitches/itchiness. Without the intervention of dialysis or kidney transplant, kidney failure eventually leads to death when it reaches stage 5. This occurs when toxins become concentrated in the body because of filtration failure and the inability to eliminate them properly.

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References

Patil, V., & Salunke, B. (2020). Fluid Overload and Acute Kidney Injury. . Indian J Crit Care Med, 24(Suppl 3): S94-S97. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23401.

Shah, S., Leonard, A., Harrison, K., Meganathan, K., Christianson, A., & Thakar, C. (2020). Mortality and Recovery Associated with Kidney Failure due to Acute Kidney Injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 15(7):995-1006. doi: 10.2215/CJN.11200919.