BIOL 304 6380 What are the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in cancer development?

BIOL 304 6380 What are the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in cancer development?

BIOL 304 6380 What are the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in cancer development?

Discussion Topic 1:

In your own words, explain the importance of the TP53 gene, which codes for the p53 protein, as a protection from cancer in humans. 

The TP53 gene is responsible for providing instructions for making the tumor protein p53. The p53 protein is located throughout the body in the cell nucleus where it directly binds to the DNA (Donehower et al., 2019). In case of damage to the DNA, the p53 protein plays a crucial role in determining whether this DNA will be repaid or undergo apoptosis. The p53 protein is a tumor suppressor protein essential in regulating the process of cell division by preventing cells from dividing (proliferating) or growing abnormally or uncontrollably fast. Mutations or alteration in the TP53 gene impairs its normal functioning leading to increased risks of a variety of cancer. Some of the interferences that can impair the normal functioning of The TP53 gene include up-regulation of negative regulators, like E3 ubiquitin ligase, MDM2 or viral proteins interferences (Marei et al., 2021). Previous evidence report that the TP53 gene is a great therapeutic target for cancer therapy, as synthetic mutp53 only kills the cancerous tumor, without interfering with normal cells.

Discussion Topic 2:

What is the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in cancer development? 

The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes both act as suppressors to cell growth and produce TSG proteins. the two proteins are

BIOL 304 6380 What are the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in cancer development
BIOL 304 6380 What are the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in cancer development

usually referred to as anti-oncogene as they help normal cells repair DNA that is damaged and guarantee the preservation of genetic materials, ensuring DNA cell stability. Mutations in BRCA1 usually contribute to approximately 60 to 80% of reported breast cancer among women in addition to increased risks of prostate cancer in men and ovarian cancer in females (Venkitaraman, 2019). Mutations in BRCA2 genes are also associated with breast and ovarian cancer in females and increased risks of breast cancer in males. The BRCA1/2 mutations are different in various ethnic groups leading to the varying prevalence of breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer across different racial and ethnic groups (Jones et al., 2019). Due to the high prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations across different races/ethnicity, genetic counselling, and genetic screening are crucial for the early detection of cancers associated with these genes.

 

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: BIOL 304 6380 What are the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in cancer development?

References

Donehower, L. A., Soussi, T., Korkut, A., Liu, Y., Schultz, A., Cardenas, M., Li, X., Babur, O., Hsu, T.-K., Lichtarge, O., Weinstein, J. N., Akbani, R., & Wheeler, D. A. (2019). Integrated Analysis of TP53 Gene and Pathway Alterations in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Cell Reports28(5), 1370-1384.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.07.001

Jones, T., Trivedi, M., Jiang, X., Silverman, T., Underhill, M., Chung, W., Kukafka, R., & Crew, K. (2019). Racial and Ethnic Differences in BRCA1/2 and Multigene Panel Testing Among Young Breast Cancer Patients. Journal of Cancer Education. https://WWW.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-019-01646-8

Marei, H. E., Althani, A., Afifi, N., Hasan, A., Caceci, T., Pozzoli, G., Morrione, A., Giordano, A., & Cenciarelli, C. (2021). p53 signaling in cancer progression and therapy. Cancer Cell International21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02396-8

Venkitaraman, A. R. (2019). How do mutations affect the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 cause cancer susceptibility? DNA Repair81, 102668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2019.102668