BIOL 304 6380 What risk factors that could lead to cancer introduced in the learning resources this week were most surprising to you?

BIOL 304 6380 What risk factors that could lead to cancer introduced in the learning resources this week were most surprising to you?

BIOL 304 6380 What risk factors that could lead to cancer introduced in the learning resources this week were most surprising to you?

The precise cause of cancer is still unknown. However, researchers have identified several risk factors that increase individual chances of developing cancer. Some of these risk factors as demonstrated in the learning resources are being exposed to certain chemicals, genetics, and certain behaviors among others (Gould et al., 2022). However, some of these factors cannot be controlled by the individual, including age and family history. Studies show that individuals with a genetic history of certain types of cancer like colorectal, breast, and prostate have a high chance of developing these cancers later in their lives even when other risk factors are avoided (Wu et al., 2018). This discussion will focus on such risk factors that are not within the control of the individual and how they can be minimized.

Advanced age is one of the most important risk factors for cancer. Studies show that diminished body

BIOL 304 6380 What risk factors that could lead to cancer introduced in the learning resources this week were most surprising to you
BIOL 304 6380 What risk factors that could lead to cancer introduced in the learning resources this week were most surprising to you

functions among the elderly among other reasons increased incidences of several cancers such as prostate, breast, lung, and liver cancer among others (Simonetto et al., 2021). However, the risks of cancer among the elderly can be reduced by adopting healthy lifestyle habits like exercise and a balanced diet, in addition to managing underlying conditions and getting enough sleep (McTiernan et al., 2019). Routine screening is also necessary for early diagnosis and timely intervention. The same strategies can be applied to those with a family history of certain types of cancers as described in the first paragraph. For instance, individuals with a family history of breast cancer are required to report for annual screening for the adoption of appropriate mitigating strategies (Zhang et al., 2020). Patient education on the risks of cancer and genetic testing have also been proven as evidence-based interventions to reduce the risks of cancer among the population at risk.

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References

Gould, D., Walker, R., Makari-Judson, G., & Seven, M. (2022). Experiences of individuals with a variant of uncertain significance on genetic testing for hereditary cancer risks: a mixed method systematic review. Journal of Community Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12687-022-00600-4

McTiernan A, Friedenreich CM, Katzmarzyk PT, Powell KE, Macko R, Buchner D, Pescatello LS, Bloodgood B, Tennant B, Vaux-Bjerke A, George SM, Troiano RP, Piercy KL; (2019). Physical Activity in Cancer Prevention and Survival. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise51(6), 1252–1261. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000001937

Simonetto, C., Wollschläger, D., Kundrát, P., Ulanowski, A., Becker, J., Castelletti, N., Güthlin, D., Shemiakina, E., & Eidemüller, M. (2021). Estimating long-term health risks after breast cancer radiotherapy: merging evidence from low and high doses. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics60(3), 459–474. https://WWW.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-021-00924-8

‌Wu, S., Zhu, W., Thompson, P., & Hannun, Y. A. (2018). Evaluating intrinsic and non-intrinsic cancer risk factors. Nature Communications9(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05467-z

Zhang, Y.-B., Pan, X.-F., Chen, J., Cao, A., Zhang, Y.-G., Xia, L., Wang, J., Li, H., Liu, G., & Pan, A. (2020). Combined lifestyle factors, incident cancer, and cancer mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. British Journal of Cancer122(7), 1085–1093. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0741-x