DNP 805 Select one informatics theory from the areas of Communication Theories, Change Theories, or Human Factors

DNP 805 Select one informatics theory from the areas of Communication Theories, Change Theories, or Human Factors

DNP 805 Select one informatics theory from the areas of Communication Theories, Change Theories, or Human Factors

Unfreezing, moving or transitioning, and refreezing are the three processes in Kurt Lewin’s Theory of Planned Change. The first stage, unfreezing, involves acknowledging that change is required and that the equilibrium will be disrupted (Chen, 2021). The initial stage is the most difficult and time-consuming because restraining factors might prevent the change from progressing (Chen, 2021). A great example would be introducing the electronic health record. During the first stage, the old ways such as paper charge would be let go. Unfreezing the necessity for the change to be discussed in dialogues and through educational sessions. The second phase is moving or transitioning. This phase necessitates a clear action plan and may create anxiety and worry (Chen, 2021). During this phase, it would be critical to work with the stakeholders (Daly, 2017). For instance, if a facility were to transition to electronic health records versus paper charting, this step is crucial as it enables the analysis of the present situation, new structures, and other processes that are put into place to attain the desired outcome (Daly, 2017). The last stage is refreezing, during which it is critical to reinforce and incorporate the change while also conducting an efficacy audit (Daly, 2017). The change is stabilized at this point, and a new equilibrium is established (Chen, 2021). In other words, the changes made are frozen in place and become part of the normal workflow. One of the strengths of Lewin’s change model is that it is simple for others to understand. Unfreezing, transition and refreezing are easy steps to follow when implementing a change within an organization (Daly, 2017). Although its simplicity is its strength, it can also be a downfall. Some changes need a more detailed process other than just unfreezing, transitioning, and refreezing (Chen, 2021).



Chen, P. (2021). A new horizon: Transitioning from an experienced to novice nurse. Journal of Radiology Nursing40(4), 368–369.


Daly, S. (2017). Development and implementation of person-centered nursing documentation. International Journal of Integrated Care (IJIC)17, 1–3.

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Kotter’s change theory goes thru a series of eight steps on how to effectively prepare the team for change and to be adaptable to the change (Carpenter et al., 2021). This theory can be instrumental in the success of using technology in advanced practice. Without setting the environment for change. One example is how the change theory was used to in a healthcare system wide practice of primary care to reduce the overall amount of opioid prescriptions among patients with chronic pain. It was vital in starting and sustaining a change long term (Carpenter et al., 2021).

This theory really provide a solid framework with eight steps to follow for a sustainable change. It guides step by step how to prepare for the change, get buy in, and the solidify the change. This is easily used an any change planning. It is apparent that this would be successful in change implementation. This theory is so important because without the foundation work then it will not likely result in a lasting transformational change. The step that I find the most important to not miss is the development of short term wins. It is sometimes overlooked and can lead to discouragement resulting in and reverting to old practices. There are not any identified weaknesses to this theory. It is an excellent foundation to be used when planning an implementation of change.


Carpenter, R. E., Silberman, D., & Takemoto, J. K. (2021). Transforming prescription opioid practices in primary care with change theory. Health Services Insights14, 117863292110582.

I enjoyed reading your post. You made a great point when you mentioned that short-term wins are sometimes

DNP 805 Select one informatics theory from the areas of Communication Theories, Change Theories, or Human Factors
DNP 805 Select one informatics theory from the areas of Communication Theories, Change Theories, or Human Factors

overlooked and can lead to discouragement, reverting to old practices. Short-term wins are steppingstones to more significant opportunities and more considerable successes, all consistent with the vision of creating an inclusive school environment. According to Kotter, an excellent short-term success has at least these three characteristics: It’s visible (and tangible); large numbers of people can see for themselves whether the result is actual or just hype (Kang et al., 2022).  Unambiguosity resides and thereby coincides with little capacity for conversational affairs. A temporary success should happen every 6-18 months from the start of efforts stemming from alterations (Kang et al., 2022). Once the guiding coalition commences the formation of vision, questions should be raised concerning the capacity and potentiality of solid effective improvements entailing the targeting as well as production within a six to an eighteenth-month timeframe (Kang et al., 2022). The importance of generating short-term wins is necessary to prevent the loss of momentum and keep the organization engaged. In actuality, the integration in regards to significant alterations occurs in a matter of time. Everyone involved in instructing work colleagues employs a temporary success through the elimination of organizational discouragement involved with delayed pacing of implementing effective organizational changes. Great post!


Kang, S. P., Chen, Y., Svihla, V., Gallup, A., Ferris, K., & Datye, A. K. (2022). Guiding change in higher education: Kotter’s change model is an emergent, iterative application. Studies in Higher Education, 47(2), 270-289.

Communication is the exchange of information and can be achieved verbally, in the written word, and even through technology. In 1986 Fred Davis was credited with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). This communication theory bases the success of any new technology on its perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness in the environment being used. For healthcare, we see this theory of use with electronic health records (EHR) and telemedicine. (Rahimi et al., 2018) These are two prevalent forms of communication used in healthcare today.

This theory stands out because it refers to the “perceived” ease of use and “perceived” usefulness. No matter how wonderful and easy the developers or those who choose a piece of technology think it is if the end-users have issues, then can it indeed be that good. Even more so, how complex will implementation be? Applying the TAM model, we can look at what the perceptions are to guide teams through deciding what to and what not to use. The plans for successfully bringing the team on board with a new system can be developed early on. One study conducted found that the perception of technology by nurses caused issues with the acceptance of said technology. The introduction of a new EHR system was perceived to be difficult and time-consuming and therefore was challenging to gain acceptance in its use. (Tubaishat, 2017)

This theory reminds us to look at the overall picture when implementing new communication technology. The programs and dynamics may be superior, but success can be hard to find without a well-thought-out introduction and implementation plan. With things such as EHR, we are trying to find a way to exchange information in the easiest, most complete way possible. I found it interesting that the most straightforward informatics theory made a powerful statement. Perception is just as crucial as actual use. Effective communication only happens when all involved are working together and have the same understanding of the tools being used.


Rahimi, B., Nadri, H., Lotfnezhad Afshar, H., & Timpka, T. (2018). A systematic review of the technology acceptance model in health informatics. Applied Clinical Informatics09(03), 604–634.

Tubaishat, A. (2017). Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of electronic health records among nurses: Application of technology acceptance model. Informatics for Health and Social Care43(4), 379–389.