NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

  NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Developmental psychopathology (DP) is an interdisciplinary field that provides an integrative framework for comprehending psychopathology in the context of an individual’s lifespan (Cicchetti, 1984, 2006; Cummings & Valentino, 2015; Masten, 2006). It is important to comprehend the psychopathology that occurs during various developmental stages of an individual’s life, spanning from birth to death, as it has a significant impact on mental health, treatment, diagnostics, and outcome. Masten and Kalstabakken (2018) have posited that the DP integrative approach has a significant impact on various aspects of mental health and well-being research, theory, diagnosis, assessment, and practice. This approach spans across multiple disciplines and pertains to individuals of all ages throughout their developmental lifespan.

When speaking on the development of psychopathology and the many factors that influences it, there are many different psychological assessments to consider including biological, psychological, social, and interpersonal. Lunansky et al. (2021) state identifying the different influences of symptoms in dynamic psychopathology models may hold promise for increasing treatment efficacy in clinical applications. It is important to understand in mental health the factors and how they impact a nurse practitioners’ multidimensional approach in the treatment of the patient across the lifespan.

     The biological factors influencing psychopathology can range depending on where the patient is in their lifespan. Determining a person’s psychopathology depends on the age as well as their environment they are in at the specific time. Harden et al. (2019) inform symptoms of psychopathology covary across diagnostic boundaries, and a family history of elevated symptoms for a single psychiatric disorder places an individual at heightened risk for a broad range of other psychiatric disorders. Genetics can have a huge impact on the development of psychopathology from fetus to adulthood, depending on a person’s surroundings, how they grew up and who they grew up around determines their psychopathology and its development thereof. Masten and Kalstabakken (2018) note during the course of human development, it is important to note that gene, environment, and exposure could influence and change the mental health of an individual.

Throughout the trajectory of human development, it is crucial to acknowledge that the mental health of an

NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology
NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

individual can be impacted and altered by factors such as gene, environment, and exposure (Masten & Kalstabakken, 2018). During fetal development, various external factors such as maternal diet, trauma, or illness can modify the biology of the developing fetus prior to delivery, as noted by Boyce and Kobor (2015) and Monk et al. (2016).

Similarly, the formative experiences of early childhood are largely governed or moderated by the nurse or other caregiving adults. As children mature, they engage with increasingly explicit systems such as peer play, school, work, social relationships, and siblings, which subsequently impact their cognitive processes and shape their interactions with particular individuals or systems (Masten & Kalstabakken, 2018). Current investigations into epigenetic mechanisms employ cutting-edge technologies to further evaluate the impact of the human genome and genetic expression on mental health.

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Psychological factors such as behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, and developmental do influence the development of psychopathology as well. Masten and Kalstabakken (2018) inform as children grow older, they increase their active role in their development and exert more choice about their interactions with other people and the environment. How a child or adolescent chooses to spend their time and in what environment they explore whether it be sports or theatre, dating the opposite sex or same sex can have a determination on their psychopathology and where their mental health is progressed. From there to adulthood can impact their mental health when dealing with other psychological factors.

In addition to genetic and developmental factors, the impact of interpersonal relationships is a significant contributor to an individual’s developmental psychopathology, as noted by Masten (2006). The transactional model assesses the bidirectional impacts of individuals and their contextual relationships on one another, as posited by Sameroff (2009). Bandura (1997) posits that the concept of children exerting influence on the interactions that subsequently shape their own development pertains to the function of human action in the process of development. As children progress through their developmental stages, they assume a more proactive role in shaping their growth trajectory and exercise greater agency in determining their social and environmental engagements (Masten & Kalstabakken, 2018). Simultaneously, transactional models acknowledge the significant impact of external sociocultural factors in limiting or modifying the course of development, as noted by Sameroff (2009). The factors that exert an impact on individuals encompass a range of elements such as socioeconomic deprivation, prejudice, armed conflict, learning, and advantageous prospects in diverse manifestations (Masten & Kalstabakken, 2018). Sameroff (2019) informs at the same time; however, transactional models recognize the profound influences of external sociocultural conditions in constraining or altering development.

      Social, cultural, and interpersonal factors also play a role in the development of psychopathology. Choudhury and Kirmayer (2019) inform culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background and the shifting meaning of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. In regard to cultural, social, and interpersonal factors related to psychopathology there are many new developments on what those are and continue to evolve today. While a person’s culture is important to understand, many new generations are forming new developments to their culture for example someone with Mexican heritage and culture may develop new social and cultural norms and even different or new interpersonal relationships as they live in America as a Mexican-American.

Understanding how these factors may change from person to person helps the nurse practitioner understand how to better understand and treat the patient. The developmental diversity observed in infants and children can occasionally be classified as “at risk” due to factors such as family background, biological exposure, war, adversity, or early behavioral issues (Masten & Kalstabakken, 2018). The aforementioned risk factors indicate the intricate nature of developmental processes in maturing individuals. While it is true that certain children who are identified as being at risk have the potential to develop into well-adjusted and thriving individuals (Masten & Kalstabakken, 2018). The development of individuals and their potential for competence, resilience, and psychopathology in the future may be influenced by their interactions with families, schools, and cultural organizations. This has been discussed in the literature by Chen and Liu (2016), Kerig (2016), and Masten (2014c).

 

References:

 

Boyce, W. T., & Kobor, M. S. (2015). Development and the epigenome: The “synapse” of gene–environment interplay. Developmental Science, 18, 1–23.

       http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/desc.12282

Links to an external site.

Chen, X., & Liu, C. H. (2016). Culture, peer relationships, and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 4. Risk,

      resilience, and intervention (3rd ed., pp. 723–769). New York, NY: Wiley.

Choudhury, S., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2019). Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: Prospects for cultural psychiatry. Progress in Brain Research, 263–

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Harden, K. P., Engelhardt, L. E., Mann, F. D., Patterson, M. W., Grotzinger, A. D., Savicki, S. L., Thibodeaux, M. L., Freis, S. M., Tackett, J. L., Church, J. A., &

Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2020). Genetic associations between executive functions and a general factor of psychopathology. Journal of the American

Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(6), 749–758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2019.05.006

Lunansky, G., Naberman, J., van Borkulo, C. D., Chen, C., Li, W., & Borsboom, D. (2021). Intervening on psychopathology networks: Evaluating

intervention targets through simulations. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/sqhje

Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall

(Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology (Vol. 2). American Psychological Association.

 https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

Sameroff, A. (Ed.). (2019). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11877-00

This is a detailed and informative post. I agree with you that understanding how psychopathology may change from person to person is crucial in helping nurse practitioners to understand how to better understand and treat the patient. Mental health issues do not only encompass a biological deficiency in an individual’s neural health, but can also encompass a psychological issue related to a person’s rational ability, personality, adaptive behavior, or mood. Various approaches can be used to treat mental illness. A multidimensional integrative approach to psychopathology is effective because it entails holistic healing of a patient’s emotional, physical, behavioral, and psychological health (Bailey & Jones, 2019). Although psychoactive drugs are critical in dealing with a physical deficiency in neurobiology, integrating therapy and skills is equally resourceful in helping patients to process their conditions and devise ways to manage their conditions (Langwerden et al., 2021). A multidimensional integrative approach to psychopathology also entails a cognitive-behavioral approach to help in affecting patients’ thinking and behavior regarding their conditions.

References

Bailey, R., & Jones, S. M. (2019). An integrated model of regulation for applied settings. Clinical child and family psychology review, 22, 2-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-019-00288-y

Langwerden, R. J., Thompson, M. G., & Wagner, E. F. (2021). A multidimensional conceptualization of identity and psychopathology: Assessing mental health disparities from an intersectional and dimensional framework. Personality and Mental Health, 15(4), 293-308. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1519