NRS 410 Discuss characteristic findings of immune dysfunction for either hypersensitivity reactions or AIDS

NRS 410 Discuss characteristic findings of immune dysfunction for either hypersensitivity reactions or AIDS

NRS 410 Discuss characteristic findings of immune dysfunction for either hypersensitivity reactions or AIDS

According to the United States Government the new diagnosis of HIV has declined in the United States and even more so globally, (HIV.gov, 2022). They also stated that AIDS related deaths are in a decline too, (HIV.gov, 2022). I attribute the decline and agree with the information provided from HIV.gov regarding the increased access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) worldwide along with other preventative measures that that have been put into place. I believe educating people on the transmission has also played a part of the decrease with new diagnoses as it is a blood born pathogen spread most often through sexual contact or needle sharing. The ART medication regimens have decreased viral loads thereby decreasing the chances of spreading the disease when engaged in risky behaviors. With all this said I do tend to believe that the HIV virus will increase in frequency again as viruses mutate and people become more relaxed about prevention. I do not think this is a virus that will ever go away, although it would be a huge blessing if it did.

HIV.gov. (2022, July 19). U.S. statistics. HIV.gov. https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/data-and

I have no doubt the stigma is still there, but I do think people are trying to overcome that stigma. In a 2018 study it states that patients are “stigmatized as being poor, having a high number of sexual partners in their lifetime, and frequently engaging in other risky sexual behavior”, (Geter et al., 2018). I imagine that drug use is another stigma that floats around too. I used to work with a guy who lived with HIV, and he told me he never wanted anyone to know because patients would request not to get cared for by him. At the time he was in a monogamous relationship with another man but had gotten infected by a previous same gender sexual relationship. This history he shared did not help the stigma that existed with the disease but having the open conversation gave me an empathy I did not have previously. He was my friend, and I did not want that to change so I decided not to be afraid or to judge. I think talking about it helps with stigma and the modern acceptance for different lifestyles I imagine will foster more understanding of the disease.

Geter, A., Herron, A. R., & Sutton, M. Y. (2018). HIV-related stigma by healthcare providers in the United States: A systematic review. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 32(10), 418–424. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2018.0114 

I have no doubt the stigma is still there, but I do think people are trying to overcome that stigma. In a 2018 study it states that patients are “stigmatized as being poor, having a high number of sexual partners in their lifetime, and frequently engaging in other risky sexual behavior”, (Geter et al., 2018). I imagine that drug use is another stigma that floats around too. I used to work with a guy who lived with HIV, and he told me he never wanted anyone to know because patients would request not to get cared for by him. At the time he was in a monogamous relationship with another man but had gotten infected by a previous same gender sexual relationship. This history he shared did not help the stigma that existed with the disease but having the open conversation gave me an empathy I did not have previously. He was my friend, and I did not want that to change so I decided not to be afraid or to judge. I think talking about it helps with stigma and the modern acceptance for different lifestyles I imagine will foster more understanding of the disease.

Geter, A., Herron, A. R., & Sutton, M. Y. (2018). HIV-related stigma by healthcare providers in the United States: A systematic review. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 32(10), 418–424. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2018.0114 

In the 1980s, knowledge about the disease was rising, but people were ruled by fear, ignorance, and stigma when it came to HIV and AIDS. At that time, the outlook for people with HIV was pretty grim because there were no treatment options. When World AIDS Day was first established in 1988, the world looked very different to how it is today. Now, we have easily accessible testing, treatment, a range of prevention options, including pre-exposure prophylaxis of PrEP (a daily medicine that can reduce one’s chances of getting HIV), and services that can reach vulnerable communities. As committed as the global health community was, the dedication of HIV activists and advocates in pushing for patient-driven care, improving access to new drugs, and expanding funding for both HIV care and research, has been unparalleled in almost any other disease field, according to The World Health Organization (WHO), and the movement was characterized by public rallies awareness campaigns (2022).

There is still a lot of work to do, and it is on-going, but I would say that the strides that have been made in the area of

NRS 410 Discuss characteristic findings of immune dysfunction for either hypersensitivity reactions or AIDS
NRS 410 Discuss characteristic findings of immune dysfunction for either hypersensitivity reactions or AIDS

HIV and AIDS. The CDC records that annual infections in the U.S. have been reduced by more than two-thirds since the height of the epidemic in the mid-1980s. “Further, CDC estimates of annual HIV infections in the United States show hopeful signs of progress in recent years. CDC estimates show new HIV infections declined 8% from 37,800 in 2015 to 34,800 in 2019, after a period of general stability” (2021). I do believe that these reductions in the incidence of HIV and subsequent AIDS are due to the many advances that have been made in testing and treatment.

 

REFERENCES

 

Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). HIV in the United States and dependent areas. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html#:~:text=In%202019%2C%2036%2C801%20peoplea,(US)%20and%20dependent%20areas.&text=From%202015%20to%202019%2C%20HIV,the%20US%20and%20dependent%20areas.

 

The World Health Organization. (2022). Why the HIV epidemic is not over. https://www.who.int/news-room/spotlight/why-the-hiv-epidemic-is-not-over

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) comes from the viral infection human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), where the virus attacks CD4+ lymphocytes and causes the lymphocyte to reproduce more HIV virus (Randall, 2018). This in return causes a suppression of the immune system response and leads to the development of AIDS (Randall, 2018). In the early stages of HIV/AIDS there can be no symptoms to non-specific flu-like symptoms, as AIDS progresses the immune system wanes and the infected individual becomes very susceptible to diseases and illnesses (Randall, 2018). If AIDS progresses to the last stage, it can be very hard to treat.

Living with AIDS can be hard for the patient and family. Getting this diagnosis can be life-changing as this takes lifelong management (HIV.gov, 2021). Family may need to support their loved ones through the diagnosis to seek and comply with treatment (HIV.gov, 2021). Patients with AIDS must be educated on the importance of testing, long-term relationships, and how the disease is transmitted (HIV.gov).  The diagnosis of HIV/AIDS can be stressful for the patient and family, and nurses should do their best to provide support and empathy during this time.

 

HIV.gov. (2021, April 8). Supporting Someone Living with HIV. HIV.Gov. https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/making-a-difference/supporting-someone-living-with-hiv

 

Randall, J. (2018). Cellular and Immunological Complexities. Grand Canyon University (Ed), Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/4