NRS 410 Explain the risk factors for osteoporosis

NRS 410 Explain the risk factors for osteoporosis

NRS 410 Explain the risk factors for osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition in which an individual’s bone is brittle. This is due to the bone unable to keep up with the process of new bone formation in balance with bone mineral removal. There are many risks involved with having this disease process such as easy fractures, and severe back issues like compression of vertebras. Risk factors for osteoporosis include family history, female, excessive alcohol, diet deficient in calcium and vitamin D, and many more. The nurse may educate patient on the disease process as well as screen the patient for complications. The nurse can educate the patient on a diet low in caffeine, alcohol, provide resources for exercises for bone strength as well as a diet that supports healthy bone.

References

Falkner, A., & Green, S. (2018). Musculoskeletal, metabolism, and multisystem complexities. In Pathophysiology clinical applications for client healthhttps://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/pathophysiology_clinical-applications-for-client-health_1e.php

Osteoporosis (OP) is a “condition of decreased bone mineral density making the bone porous” (Grand Canyon University, 2018). When the bone mineral density is decreased, it leads to the interior of the bone becoming “honeycombed”. As a result, the bone becomes weak, and this weakness increases the risk of fractures. Some of the risk factors of OP include, but are not limited to family history, increased age, obesity, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle (Grand Canyon University, 2018). One study has shown that essential hypertension EH) can be a risk factor for OP, stating “prevalence of OP and low BMD were significantly higher among subjects with EH than among healthy controls” (Wu, et al., 2022). A nurse can help those with OP by thorough patient education about the condition and how to keep from their calcium stores becoming worse. This could be done by with a diet promoting proper bone mineral stores, exercising, and keeping from modifiable risk factors like smoking.

References

 

Grand Canyon University. (2018). Pathophysiology: Clinical applications for client health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/

 

Wu, H.-L., Wei, Y.-C., Wang, J.-Y., Jia, Y.-Y., Li, L., Zhang, L., . . . Leng, X.-Y. (2022). condition of decreased bone mineral density making the bone porous. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 22(1), 1-8. Retrieved from https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1186/s12902-022-01080-w

Osteoporosis has some serious long term effects such as heigh loss, spine deformities that include curvature to the spine, this can affect posture, ongoing back problems and muscle spasms. Osteoporosis can also increase the risk of fractures and complications of fractures. One in three women is more likely to have a fracture caused by osteoporosis in their life time according t o the Mayo Clinic Research. Things to consider for having osteoporosis if your taking thyroid medication, hearing loss, lower back pain, frequently bloated or constipated, hard to get out of chair and bed (Mayo Clinic, 2021).

 

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2021, August 21). Osteoporosis. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved July 23, 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoporosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351968 

Osteoporosis can affect anyone, but the risk increases as you get older. “Over time, minerals are lost, causing the bone to become thinner, weaker, and prone to fractures. Osteoporosis is the most common disease affecting the bones” (Huether et al., 2017). Notable risk factors include, but are not limited to, family history of osteoporosis, early menopause, calcium and/or Vitamin D deficiency, tobacco use, physical inactivity and prolonged use of certain medications. [NIH, 2022] Nurses can provide patients with appropriate education on preventing injuries and lifestyle changes such as diet and physical activity. Example include adopting a diet that is rich in calcium and vitamin D and incorporating physical activity that promotes bone and joint health such as weight-training, walking, jogging and hiking. Strong bones can help protect patients from other complications that could arise from injuries such as fractures. Fractures occur due to direct trauma to a bone and when a bone is no longer firm because of disease. (Falkner, 2018 )

Reference:

Huether, S. E., McCance, K. L., Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

 

Falkner, A., & Green, S. Z. (2018). Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities. Pathophysiology clinical applications for Client Health. Retrieved June 9, 2022, from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/5

 

nih, nih. (2022). Osteoporosis. National Institute on Aging. Retrieved July 23, 2022, from https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/osteoporosis

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There are several risk factors that could be attributed to osteoporosis. Age, gender, family history, and lifestyle habits

NRS 410 Explain the risk factors for osteoporosis
NRS 410 Explain the risk factors for osteoporosis

are just a few to name. Medications and medical procedures may also contribute to the development of osteoporosis (Porter et al., 2021). Post-menopausal women, especially those who went through menopause before age 45 or had history of irregular periods, are at an elevated risk. Women who had hysterectomy with ovary removal are also at an increased risk for the development of osteoporosis. Corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, heparin, and/or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are among medications that reduce bone mineral density thus increasing chances of developing osteoarthritis.

Osteoporosis develops slowly and progresses over time. If an individual has a family history of osteoporosis, they should discuss risk factors with their provider. Nursing care is aimed at restoring function and self-care activities (Porter et al., 2021). The focus of management should include encouragement of weight-bearing activities, assisting the patient with self-care activities, and providing ambulatory assistance for those with unsteady gait. The nurse must also provide patient education regarding modifiable lifestyle changes. These changes include consuming a diet high in calcium and vitamin D, quitting smoking, limiting alcohol consumption, and reviewing medications (Porter et al., 2021). Nurses should also assist in monitoring the plan of care and monitoring for complications.

References:

Falkner, A., & Green, S. (2018b). Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. Lc.gcumedia.com. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/5

MacGill, M. (2019, July 22). Osteoporosis: Risk factors, diagnosis, and treatmentWww.medicalnewstoday.comhttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/155646

Porter, J. L., Varacallo, M., & Castano, M. (2021). Osteoporosis (Nursing). PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568781/

Explain the risk factors for osteoporosis. What can a nurse do to help manage this health condition to restore the patient to optimal health?

Osteoporosis is a condition of decreased bone density, making the bone porous and increasing the risk for fractures, and bone structure distraction, ((Falkner & Green, 2018)). It is one of the most common diseases affecting the bone with age as bone mineral absorption decreases with age. Risk factors for osteoporosis include increased age, family history, Caucasian race (although it affects a wide range of ethnicity and race), female, obesity, excessive alcohol use and smoking. There are more risk factors for osteoporosis but am focusing on these for the assignment. Among the risk factors listed are modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. The non-modifiable risk factors such as race, age, family history, gender are non-modifiable risk factors. The nurse can help manage patients’ health by teaching patients’ ways to lower modifiable risk factors such as eating a healthy diet. Consuming a diet low in saturated fat, increased the consumption of fruits and vegetables can help lower their risk. Encouraging activity and exercise can also help bone strengthening, thereby reducing risk factors for osteoporosis. The nurse can encourage smoking cessation and alcohol consuming as these behaviors increase risk factors for the disease, “heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with lower bone mass and higher rates of fracture” (Pouresmaeili et al,2018). A diet healthy in dairy products, fruits and vegetables and whole grains have been proven effective to lower risk factors for osteoporosis ad many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.

 Reference:

Falkner, A., & Green, S. Z. (2018). Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities. Pathophysiology clinical applications for Client Health. Retrieved June 9, 2022, from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/5

Pouresmaeili, F., Kamalidehghan, B., Kamarehei, M., & Goh, Y. M. (2018). A comprehensive overview on osteoporosis and its risk factors. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 14, 2029–2049. https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S138000