NRS 410 Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors

NRS 410 Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors

NRS 410 Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors

When I read your question, my immediate thought was about traumatic brain injury, or TBI.

TBI occurs when a sudden trauma damages the brain. It can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. According to the NIH (2022), a reported 3.6 million people in the U.S. sustain brain injuries every year. The recent tragic death of the actor, Bob Saget highlights just how serious any head injury can be (he accidentally hit the back of his head, didn’t realize the severity, and went to sleep, as far too many people do).

TBI can display an array of symptoms, to include perceptual, neurological, and cognitive impairment, with varying levels of severity. Some of those symptoms include headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking. Capizzi et al (2019) discuss how a person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these same symptoms but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.

 

REFERENCES

 

Capizzi, A., Woo, J., & Verduzco-Gutierrez, M. (2019). Traumatic brain injury: An overview of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and medical management. Science Direct, 104(2), 213-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2019.11.001

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2022). Traumatic brain injury: What research is being done? National Institutes of Health. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/traumatic-brain-injury#:~:text=Traumatic%20brain%20injury%20(TBI)%2C,skull%20and%20enters%20brain%20tissue.

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The central nervous system is affected by the condition known as multiple sclerosis. Myelin, the barrier that surrounds nerve fibers, is attacked by the immune system, which results in inflammation and lesions. This makes it challenging for the brain to communicate with the rest of the body. Also, the nerve cells to the spinal cord are disrupted. About 50% of MS patients develop cognitive impairments, which can include memory loss, poor judgment, and attention and focus problems (U.S Dept. of Health and Human Resources (n.d.). Each patient’s experience with MS is unique and varies from moderately losing the ability to walk, speak, or write (McNamara, L. (2015). Since the underlying cause is unknown, a diagnosis must be made by ruling out other possibilities.

 

References

McNamara, L. (2015, October 5). What is multiple sclerosis (MS)?: The Johns Hopkins Multiple Sclerosis Center. What is Multiple Sclerosis (MS)? | The Johns Hopkins Multiple Sclerosis Center. Retrieved July 26, 2022, from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/multiple_sclerosis/conditions/ 

 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Multiple sclerosis. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved July 26, 2022, from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/multiple-sclerosis 

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that causes damage to nerve fibers in the central nervous system

NRS 410 Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors
NRS 410 Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors

(lesions), which can lead to vision problems, sensory disturbance, muscle weakness, or loss of balance (Cleveland Clinic, 2021). MS is characterized by physical disability, cognitive impairment, and other symptoms which affect one’s quality of life. Typically, providers measure disease activity and progression by relapses, MRI activity, and short-term progression of disability (McGinley et al., 2021). With no cure for MS., treatment focuses on symptom management, reducing relapses (periods when symptoms worsen), and slowing the disease’s progression. Treatment to slow the progression of the disease include disease-modifying therapies that help reduce flare-ups and prevent the new formation of lesions on the brain and spinal cord—Corticosteroids slow damage to the myelin sheath during a severe attack (Cleveland Clinic, 2021). Symptom management is integral to treatment, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, cognitive impairment, bladder and bowel issues, gait dysfunction, mood dysregulation, and sleep disturbance, and should include a combination of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments (McGinley et al., 2021). Patients are also referred to rehabilitation for PT/OT and counseling to help them cope.

References

Cleveland Clinic. (2021). Multiple sclerosis (ms): Symptoms, causes, diagnosis & treatmentshttps://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17248-multiple-sclerosis

McGinley, M. P., Goldschmidt, C. H., & Rae-Grant, A. D. (2021). Diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis. JAMA325(8), 765. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.26858

One common neurological issue is dementia. Dementia is the “impaired cognitive function evidenced by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning caused by brain disease” (Falkner & Green, 2018). Dementia can happen as a result of Alzheimer’s disease (60%-80% of dementia cases), direct trauma, stroke, or other conditions (Falkner & Green, 2018). There are factors that increase a person’s risk to get dementia. These risk factors include head injury, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, type 2 diabetes, and smoking (Falkner & Green, 2018).

There are many things that can be done to help promote health in people with dementia. One thing is helping those with dementia stay in their community as long as possible while remaining active, and independent (CDC, 2022). Next providers must be assessing older adults and provide early diagnosis, prevention, and risk reduction for those at risk for dementia (CDC, 2022). Lastly, there should be increased use of preventative services like cancer, blood sugar, and blood pressure screenings (CDC, 2022). It is important to promote the health of older adults that have dementia.

 

Centers for Disease Control. (2022). Promoting Health for Older Adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/factsheets/promoting-health-for-older-adults.htm

 

Falkner, A., & Green, S. (2018). Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health, Chapter 2, Neurological, Perceptual, and Cognitive Complexities. Grand Canyon University (Ed). https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/2

Dementia is a very common disease that affects cognitive and social abilities. The exact cause of dementia is unknown, and there is no cure available. It is no respecter of age and includes a decline in the person’s cognitive abilities due to damage to cerebral hemispheres and subcortical areas of memory and learning in the brain. It is estimated that 60%-80% of all Alzheimer’s disease cases are caused by dementia. Over time symptoms become worse for the patient. It usually starts with memory loss and ends in death. Dementia has different symptoms such as changes in mood, confusion, difficulty concentrating, getting lost, reduced vocabulary, poor judgment in decisions, and withdrawal from work or social events (Falkner & Green, 2018). Someone who has taken care of a dementia patient in the past may be able to give insight or tips into taking care of a dementia patient.

Reference

Falkner, A. & Green, S. (2018). Neurological, perceptive, and cognitive complexities. In Grand Canyon University. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1#/chapter/2

Alzheimer’s disease is a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive problem. It is the most prevalent cause of dementia. (Martorelli, 2019). AD is a degenerative brain condition that impairs thinking and memory. Although the precise etiology of Alzheimer’s disease is unknown, it is assumed to be a combination of genetic, dietary, and environmental factors. Despite the fact that there is no known cure for Alzheimer’s disease, there are medications that can help with symptom management.

There is no cure for AD currently but there are steps that can be taken to help slow down or stop the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. These include leading an active lifestyle, exercising frequently, eating right, and engaging in mental activity. It’s also imperative to receive frequent medical examinations and treatment for any underlying health issues.

To improve general health and wellbeing and lower the risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease, it is crucial to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Regular exercise has been found to promote the development of new brain cells, which is crucial for preserving the health of the brain. A balanced diet is necessary to maintain optimal brain health, and certain nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, blueberries, and green leafy vegetables, are known to have special advantages for the brain. Maintaining mental engagement is crucial because it has been demonstrated that doing so can aid the brain in fighting cognitive decline.

Additionally, there are a few things that can be done to assist in managing Alzheimer’s disease symptoms. The brain can be stimulated by performing tasks like memory exercises, puzzle solving, and other brain-training activities. Medication can be administered to help treat the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. These drugs can enhance cognition, behavior, and memory.

Reference

Martorelli, M., Sudo, F. K., & Charchat-Fichman, H. (2019). This is not only about memory: A systematic review on neuropsychological heterogeneity in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychology & Neuroscience12(2), 271–281. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/pne0000149

 

Falkner, A., Green, S. (2018). Neurological, perceptual, and cognitive complexities. In Grand Canyon University (Ed.), Pathophysiology clinical applications for client health. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/2