NRS 433 Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition

NRS 433 Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition

NRS 433 Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition

Sampling theory is a process of determining the population that is going to be studied (Green et. al., 2022). An example of sampling is the probability sampling technique. This technique is used to prevent bias from swaying any results. The most common types of probability sampling are, cluster sampling, random sampling, and systematic sampling (Green et. al., 2022). Being able to make generalizations about nursing research is helpful because it allows people to receive the best treatment options given what evidence based practice has to offer. Generalizability is helpful because clinicians can use studies to help make informed treatment decisions for specific populations (Kamper, 2020). When generalizations are made about certain populations clinicians can modify treatment plans. For example, we know that some minority groups are at higher risk of getting chronic diseases such as diabetes so the treatment plan for these populations can be modified to be a little more aggressive.

Green, S.Z. & Johnson, J.L. (2022). Research ethics and evaluation of qualitative research. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Nursing Research: Understanding Methods for Best Practice. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000588/epub/Chapter2.html#page_48

 

Kamper, S. J. (2020). Generalizability: Linking Evidence to Practice. PubMed. Retrieved March 24, 2023, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31892291/

Sampling theory is the study of the relationship between a population and a group randomly picked as the representatives of the whole population. This theory can be considered biased since the researcher is picking and choosing which group to research and what population they want to represent (Elfil & Negida, 2018). An example of sampling theory would be taking a population of smokers and starting them on nicotine gum and see if it helps the smokers quit smoking. The sample would be the population of smokers, changing their habits by starting the nicotine gum, and testing the results.

Generalizability is the extension of research findings or conclusion made from the sample during a research on a large population (Johnson, 2019). Using my previous example, the researcher is generalizing the smoking population that nicotine gum would help with smoking cessation when it most likely will not help everyone. Generalizability is big in the nursing research world because we study populations as a whole and try to come up with “generalized” solutions. These solutions may not help everyone specifically but will meet the need as a community.

 

References

 

Elfil, M., & Negida, A. (2018). Sampling methods in Clinical Research; an Educational Review. Emergency (Tehran, Iran), 5(1), e52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5325924/

 

Johnson, J. L. (2019). Generalizability in qualitative research. Completing a qualitative project: Details and dialogue, 191.

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Sampling theory involves the selection of a group of people, behaviors, events, or other elements with which to

NRS 433 Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition
NRS 433 Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition

conduct a study. A sampling plan lays out the process by which sampling selections are made. The sampling theory was created to mathematically determine the most effective way to acquire a sample that would accurately reflect the population that was under study. The key concepts of the sampling theory are (1) populations, (2) elements, (3) sampling criteria, (4) representativeness, (5) sampling errors, (6) randomization, (7) sampling frames, and (8) sampling plans. (Nurse Key, 2017).  For example, the research conducting said study may first randomly select states and then randomly select cities within the sampled states. Hospitals within the randomly selected cities might then be randomly selected as well. Within those selected hospitals the nursing units may also be randomly selected.

When discussing generalizability it is simple. The results of a study are generalizable when they can be applied (useful for informing a clinical decision) to patients who present for care. Clinicians must make reasoned decisions about the generalizability of research findings beyond a study population. (Kamper, 2020) To help guide how generalization might be considered, four different types of generalizability are presented; naturalistic generalization, transferability, analytical generalizability, and intersectional generalizability.

References

Kamper, S. J. (2020, January). Generalizability: Linking Evidence to Practice. PubMed. Retrieved March 24, 2023, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31892291/

Nurse Key. (2017, February 17). Sampling. Nurse Key. Retrieved March 24, 2023, from https://nursekey.com/sampling-2/

Our textbook states that sampling theory is an important field in research where it is a theory that studies the relationship of a certain population and a group of random people (Falkner, 2022). An example of this can be hospitals being selected randomly in the city with units in those specific hospitals being randomly selected as representative groups. Generalizability is the conclusions made based on the sampling research. This applies to the nursing world because we try to come up with solutions that tend to be generalized and may not specifically help everyone. It is important to understand this twirly as it relates to the nursing world and the research involved.

Falkner, A., Green, S., Helbig, J., Johnson, J., McNiff, P., Petrick, M., & Schmidt, M. (2022). Nursing Research: Understanding Methods for Best Practice (Second). Grand Canyon University. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000588/epub/Imprint.html#page_3

The American Psychological Association defines sampling theory as a sampling process and principles used to provide guidance to researchers in how to account for cases and subsets of cases that are under and overrepresented in the population (American Psychological Association, 2023).

Data collection is a process that is determined by the number of participants in the study and the type of study.  The process chosen promotes data quality.  Nonprobability sampling methods are used for qualitative studies in which the sample population is selected nonrandomly,   probability sampling chooses the population randomly, and purposive sampling selects subjects to add value to the study results (Falkner et al., 2022).

Sample sizes of non-probability are small due to the studies being qualitative and the target population does not have equal chances of participation.  An example of this may be to recruit by sending out e-mails to students in a university college or placing a flyer in a public space.  Samples in probability sampling target populations to have equal chances of being selected in each unit for quantitative research.  Smaller subsets of a larger population sample are used by using natural clusters of the larger population such as researching the number of knee injuries in the NFL by sampling a team or a randomly chosen number of teams instead of sampling the entire football league.  Every single person in each cluster would be surveyed to decrease bias.

 

References:

 

Falkner, A., Green, S., Helbig, J., Johnson, J., McNiff, P., Petrick, M., & Schmidt, M. (2022). Nursing Research: Understanding Methods for Best Practice (Second). Grand Canyon University. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000588/epub/Imprint.html#page_3

 

American Psychological Association. (2023). APA Dictionary of Psychology. Dictionary.apa.org. https://dictionary.apa.org/sampling-theory