NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

The use of a novel generation of interactive patient engagement systems leveraging virtual health coaches powered by artificial intelligence can assist health facilities and systems address the rising shortage of nurses. Through these interactive technologies, nurses can spend more time with patients and elevate their roles in improving care management and coordination. The increasing deployment of telehealth technology in different care facilities is considered as one of the critical aspects of addressing the nursing shortage problem. Qualitative studies show that healthcare facilities can leverage telehealth to address the nursing shortage. The purpose of this assignment is to provide a summary of two qualitative studies on using telehealth to address the nursing shortage problem. The paper also discusses the use of the findings in nursing practice, and addresses ethical considerations related to their conduct.

Background to the Studies

The identified studies include Barbosa and Da Silva’s (2017) article on nursing by telehealth and Bashir and Bastola’s (2018) article on nurses’ perspectives towards telehealth based on efficacy and quality of health care.


The problem under investigation in both articles is use of telehealth in nursing to enhance accessibility and improve the quality of services offered. In their study, Barbosa et al. (2017) focus on nurses’ perception concerning interpersonal communication in care provision using telehealth. Bashir et al. (2018) consider telehealth as an innovative model in health care delivery for nurses to effectively manage patients; especially those with chronic diseases away from healthcare facilities. These studies all demonstrate the acute problem of nursing shortage that healthcare industry faces. Different studies have explored the use of telehealth and telemedicine as effective interventions to address the spiraling nursing shortage problem. In his article, Neville (2018) discusses how leveraging telehealth can improve accessibility, reduce the perennial nursing shortage and improve quality of care. Further, Garajawala and Pelkowski (2021) assert that telehealth offers benefits like minimizing the costs of care and improving patient satisfaction and quality. Imperatively, the articles under critical analysis demonstrate the need to integrate telehealth to help mitigate the acute nursing shortage.

Significance of the Studies

The two studies offer critical benefits to stakeholders on how they can address the nursing shortage problem while cutting costs, increasing access to and improving quality of care. The studies show that telehealth allows nurses to enhance engagement and interactions with patients; leading to shared decision-making and patient-centric care interventions.

Purpose, Objectives & Research Questions

The article by Barbosa and Da Silva’s aim is to evaluate nurses’ perception concerning interpersonal communication

NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations
NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

while providing care using telehealth. The article by Bashir et al. (2018) examines if telehealth technology affects the perceived degree of internal service quality offered by nurses in a telehealth setting. The research empirically tests and validates the notion of telehealth nursing service quality (TNSQ).  The research questions in both studies focus on the significance of telehealth in nursing; especially on enhancing quality care and helping stakeholders to address the nursing shortage problem through innovative care provision. What is the perception of nurses on interpersonal communication when providing care through telehealth? Does telehealth technology impact the perceived degree of internal service quality offered by nurses within a telehealth environment or organization?

Implications of the Two Studies in Nursing

The two studies have significant impact on nursing practice, especially efforts to address the nursing shortage issue as they offer innovative solution through deployment of telehealth. Studies and government indices show that the country will experience a shortage of registered nurses which is projected to intensify as the baby boomers’ generation ages, retires, and demands for more health care services. The increasing number of patients with chronic disease, the increased expansion of care due to health insurance reforms, and changes in scope of practice and authority for nurses imply that more healthcare providers will be required. Therefore, these articles present evidence that healthcare practitioners and organizations can leverage to mitigate the nursing shortage problem.

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The findings from the two articles shows that more organizations can use telehealth nursing as a remedy for the current and projected shortage. These articles also demonstrate the need for nursing leaders to develop innovative solutions focused on care expansion and increased participation of patients and their families. The implication is that nursing shortage requires evidence-based practice (EBP) interventions to tackle it for long-term outcomes.

Method of Study

The article by Barbosa et al. (2017) uses qualitative research based on a questionnaire with open-ended question. The authors them use content analysis in identifying the overriding themes in the study. The theoretical framework is descriptive analysis as the investigators interviewed healthcare providers working in telehealth in Brazil. The interviewed participants were 20 comprising of seven nurses and 13 physicians. In the second article by Bashir et al. (2018) the investigators used case study site where data was collected from the interviewed nurses in the facility. The case site was the Visiting Nurse Association (VNA) of Omaha since it uses telehealth interventions to provide patient care. The VNA telehealth nurses volunteered to participate in the study. The investigators theoretical framework comprised of the TNSQ model based on three steps: survey research, preliminary interviews and use of SERVQUAL to assess the level of TNSQ adaption. The approach allowed the investigators to get information from the nurses for effective analysis and enhanced understanding of the deployment of telehealth.

Results of the Studies

Article1: The article by Barbosa et al. (2017) observe that their analysis produced four groups from the dialogues. These include understanding the significance of communication, influence of interpersonal relationship on communication, communication through technology and learning the communication process. The authors assert that nurses using telehealth perceive that it facilitates effective nursing practice, especially mitigating nursing shortage by improving access and engagement of patients. The findings also show that effective training of nurses leads to better adoption of technology for quality care provision.

Article 2: The finding from Bashir et al. (2018) article show a positive relationship between telehealth and quality of the services. The study shows that nurses can embrace telehealth not just to improve quality but also reduce the problem of nursing shortage as they can offer care to patients remotely. The study highlights the importance of telehealth process in daily monitoring of patient health leading to better interactions with families.

Ethical Considerations

Research studies must have an ethical perspective based on concepts like informed consent, provision of sufficient information, and non-biased selection of participants. Ethical considerations like getting approval from Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) validate findings from any study as they indicate adherence and compliance to set legal and moral thresholds. An analysis of the two articles shows that they considered the critical ethical aspects of informed consent and approval from IRB. The study by Barbosa et al. (2017) was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Nursing School at Sao Paulo University. Therefore, it met national and international ethical standards in research that involves human participants. The study by Bashir et al. (2018) was approved by the respective study sites and institutional boards for ethical research. In both studies, all participants gave their informed consent to be part of the investigation. Further, most were healthcare workers who understand ethical provisions required from researcher and the idea of informed consent.


Qualitative studies on the deployment of telehealth in nursing to reduce the nursing shortage problem show that increased participation of nurses in technology portends positive outcomes for providers and patients. Nursing shortage is a critical health issue that needs innovative solutions and interventions. The studies show that by leveraging technologies, healthcare organizations and providers can address the issue of nursing shortage, improve quality care delivery, and expand access to patients in rural settings who are underserved.



Barbosa, I. D. A., & Silva, M. J. P. D. (2017). Nursing care by telehealth: what is the influence

of distance on communication? Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 70, 928-934.


Bashir, A., & Bastola, D. R. (2018). Perspectives of nurses toward telehealth efficacy and quality

of health care: pilot study. JMIR medical informatics, 6(2), e9080. DOI: 10.2196/medinform.9080

Gajarawala, S. N., & Pelkowski, J. N. (2021). Telehealth benefits and barriers. The Journal for

            Nurse Practitioners, 17(2), 218-221. DOI: 10.1016/j.nurpra.2020.09.013

Neville, C. W. (2018). Telehealth: A balanced look at incorporating this technology into practice.

SAGE Open Nursing, 4, 2377960818786504.