NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

Child development is the constant but expected sequential biological, emotional, and psychological changes in human beings from birth to the end of adolescence. A developmental assessment is conducted for children at this period to evaluate various aspects of a child’s functioning, including motor, cognition, behavior, communication, sensory abilities, adaptive skills, and social interaction (Aylward, 2020). The purpose of this paper is to discuss physical assessments among school-aged children and the typical developmental stages of a 10-year-old.

Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children

School-aged children are those between 6-12 years. Physical assessment of school-aged children takes the same approach, but some aspects differ based on the child’s age. It starts with vital signs and nutritional assessment (height and weight) (Choo et al., 2019). However, the normal range of vital signs differs with age. The physical exam is the same using a head-to-toe approach and applying inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation techniques. Dental, visual, and hearing exams are also performed in school-aged children (Choo et al., 2019). Children from 10 years are assessed for physical changes from secondary sexual characteristics, including the growth of pubic hair and breast development.

The physical assessment can be modified to correspond to the school-age child’s age and development by giving simple instructions that the child understands as per their cognitive development. Besides, the examiner should begin with less-invasive and uncomfortable procedures and end with the most invasive and painful exams (Sheldrick et al., 2019). The examination can be done when the parent is present for children below eight years. However, children above eight years may feel uncomfortable having their caregivers around, and thus privacy should be upheld to promote comfort.

Typical Developmental Stages of 10-Year-Old

A ten-year-old undergoes physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development. Physically, they begin exhibiting growth patterns related to gender, and signs of puberty may start showing. They should demonstrate endurance and have more advanced fine motor skills (Misirliyan & Huynh, 2021). In the cognitive aspect, a 10-year-old should: Know the complete date; Name months of a year in order; Read books with chapters; Read and understand a paragraph with complex sentences; Have calculation skills in addition and subtraction; Write simple stories; Have speech patterns almost at an adult level (Misirliyan & Huynh, 2021). Typical development in the emotional and social aspects include: Enjoying interacting with their friends; Having friends of the same gender; Enjoying team and group activities; Being aware of the body.

Developmental Assessment Using Erickson’s Developmental Theory

In Erickson’s psychosocial developmental theory, a 10-year-old belongs to the Industry vs. Inferiority stage. Children

NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child
NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

in this developmental stage get encouraged and reinforced by their initiative (Maree, 2021). They become industrious and have a high confidence level in their capability to attain goals. However, if the initiative is discouraged or restricted, the child starts to feel inferior, doubting their abilities, and may not attain their potential. The Erickson theory would be employed in developmentally assessing a child by assigning them a task to do independently (Maree, 2021). I would then assess the sense of industry and inferiority by evaluating their feelings after succeeding or failing to complete the task.

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Strategies to gain the child’s cooperation include explaining the exams that will be performed in simple terms, including the painful procedures. A non-threatening language will be used in giving instructions to foster cooperation. Besides, I would allow the child to play with some assessment tools, such as the stethoscope, to relieve anxiety during examination and foster cooperation (Choo et al., 2019). I would explain to the child in simple terms the assessment findings, including normal and abnormal findings, probable causes, and further examinations or treatments that will be ordered.

Conclusion

Physical assessment of school-aged children takes a similar approach, and the same exams are conducted in all children. However, different ranges determine the findings as normal or abnormal. The exam can be modified by having painful and invasive procedures last and using simple instructions during the assessment. Erickson’s developmental theory can be applied to assess a child by evaluating their attitude when they succeed or fail in completing a task.

 

References

Aylward, G. P. (2020). Conducting a Developmental Assessment in Young Children. Journal of Health Service Psychology46(3), 103-108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42843-020-00015-0

Choo, Y. Y., Yeleswarapu, S. P., How, C. H., & Agarwal, P. (2019). Developmental assessment: practice tips for primary care physicians. Singapore medical journal60(2), 57–62. https://doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019016

Maree, J. G. (2021). The psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson: a critical overview. Early Child Development and Care, 191(7-8), 1107–1121. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2020.1845163

Misirliyan, S. S., & Huynh, A. P. (2021). Development Milestones. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Sheldrick, R. C., Schlichting, L. E., Berger, B., Clyne, A., Ni, P., Perrin, E. C., & Vivier, P. M. (2019). Establishing new norms for developmental milestones. Pediatrics144(6). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-0374