NRS 493 Name two different methods for evaluating evidence
NRS 493 Name two different methods for evaluating evidence
There are various different methods for evaluating evidence. The two main methods are categorized as quantitative and qualitative methods of evaluating evidence. Quantitative methods involve the use of assessing and collecting data in numerical forms. This includes but is not restricted to calculating standard deviation, mean or average, Mann Whitney tests etc (Quantitative research and analysis: Quantitative methods overview, 2021). This form of data is measurable and is more easily able to use to predict a pattern or finding. Most research and experiments conducted in nursing, research, and other fields involve the collection of quantitative data and quantitative methods of research because it is more reliable and straight forward than qualitative tests. Qualitative methods and analyze data based on qualitative categories such as experiences, perceptions, observations, and processes rather than numerical data that shows cause and effect. This type of methos is useful when trying to find a correlation and especially important between a physician and patients. The patient presents qualitative data like how they’re feeling, where the pain is from, and what type of pain they are in along with other symptoms they are experiencing so that the physician can use these qualitative data points to match the disease that is typically linked with the symptoms that the patient is also exhibiting. Whereas, in the context of a patient and physician, the patients reporting of how many times they have went to the restroom, their caloric intake, and other information like weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate etc. are all forms of quantitative data. The pros of qualitative research are that it allows for flexibility and creativity because the scope of the project is continuously changing as more data is collected. While there are benefits, cons of qualitative research include the fact that they are very open to interpretation and therefore very subjective. This allows for a greater amount of bias which includes participant bias and researcher bias which will compromise the reliability and accuracy of the experiment as a whole. Qualitative research is also conducted on smaller sample sizes because data collection is usually longer and more tedious with more costs. As for quantitative research, pros include the fact that data is objective, and bias is much more limited than in qualitative studies. Data collected from quantitative methods can also be collected a lot easier and communicated through data sheets, statistics, charts, and graphs which make it simpler to follow. Unlike qualitative data, new technology and software systems can easily compute data and manipulate it to isolated variables that the researcher is looking for to find a cause and effect. While there are benefits, the cons of quantitative research include that it is very restrictive and there is one clear answer rather than participants being allowed to elaborate on their answers for more context. Furthermore, analysis of statistics gathered in quantitative research calls for a much larger pool of participants. Both qualitative and quantitative research seek to find correlations in the collected data and both are significant in disproving existing theories, creating new ones, and elaborating on ones that already exist (Hoover, 2021).
Hoover, L. (2021). What is qualitative vs. Quantitative Study? GCU. Retrieved May 7, 2022, from https://www.gcu.edu/blog/doctoral-journey/what-qualitative-vs-quantitative-study
Quantitative research and analysis: Quantitative methods overview. LibGuides. (2021). Retrieved May 7, 2022, from https://lib-guides.letu.edu/quantresearch
There are two main venues of research to assess information and/or data to in-turn be utilized to benefit the medical (or any) field and for the ultimate benefit of the patients and communities served. Quantitative, utilizes QUANTITIES: numbers, measurements, comparisons and may “include studies such as clinical trials, cohort studies and systematic reviews” per. Chambers and Cowdell (2021). Quantitative research seeks to answer the “what” yet vital aspect of a way to study. Wuhan, China compared medical data in a quantitative study including Covid-19 positive patients (191 recruited) and a randomly selected control group of 50 healthy persons (Yufei et al., 2020). This quantitative research provided information regarding an assessment of possible Covid-19 pneumonia and looking at the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (NLR) and C-reactive protein level (CRP) per Yufei et al., with findings of substantially elevated levels among Covid-19 patients compared to the healthy volunteers control group (2020). Chambers and Cowdell inform us a gold standard of research is considered the randomized controlled trial which looks at a randomly selected group (for example of patients with a particular disease or illness) that is either placed in the intervention group or the control group (2021). The results are reported via the quantitative research data, yet the value of the patient insight is not to be taken lightly and should be added (which would add the vital qualitative research aspect) (Chambers & Cowdell, 2021).
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Qualitative research makes use of words with descriptions, life, color and insight and per Chambers and Cowdell
may incorporate interviews and discussion groups to “explore participants’ perspectives” (2021). This venue of research takes into consideration, persons feelings, experiences or beliefs of the “how” and/or the “why” of the question being sought (Chambers & Cowdell, 2021). An example of a qualitative study is a study in Sao Paulo, seeking to gain understanding from health care professionals who provide direct observation treatment for persons with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and the benefits derived for future medical professionals to have insight of interactions and care for the patients they served in the midst of Covid-19 (Souza et al., 2021).
If a comparison is needed regarding 2 different medications and their effectiveness, Chambers and Cowdell inform us, a quantitative study would provide the needed data; however if seeking to comprehend patients’/persons’ feelings and experiences with the medication ~ a qualitative study would be provided (2021).
Data, numbers and the “what” of research is vital to glean from, yet we must never forget why the data is being researched … it is for the individuals, families and communities we serve and their insight, information and voice is crucial to see the big and full picture and for us as medical professionals to be able to provide optimal and quality patient care. Care to patients.
Chalmers, J., & Cowdell, F. (2021). What Are Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods? A Brief Introduction. Dermatological Nursing, 20(2), 45–48.
Souza, L. L. L., Santos, F. L., dos, Crispim, J. de A., Fiorati, R. C., Dias, S., Bruce, A. T. I, Alves, Y. M. Ramos A.C V., Berra, T. Z., da Costa, F. B. P., Alves, L. S., Monroe, A. A., Fronteria, I. & Arcenio, R. A. (2021). Causes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from the perspectives of health providers: challenges and strategies for adherence to treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. BMS Health Services Research 21(1) 1-10. doi: 10.1186/s12913-021-07057-0. PMID: 34592970; PMCID: PMC8483800.
Yufei, Y., Mingli, L., Xuejiao, L., Xuemei, D., Yiming, J., Qin, Q., Hui, S., & Jie, G. (2020). Utility of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and C-reactive protein level for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation, 80(7), 536–540. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/00365513.2020.1803587