NUR 606 Develop Visual Aid/Educational Presentation
NUR 606 Develop Visual Aid/Educational Presentation
State three major functions of plasma proteins and list the component responsible for each.
The major plasma proteins include albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen. Albumin is important for the maintenance of colloid osmotic pressure of the blood and transportation of drugs, hormones, and fatty acids. Globulins come in three flavors which are alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha-globulins are high-density lipoproteins that are integral to carrying fats to the cells to be used as energy. low-density lipoproteins are better globulins that help transport fat to the cells for cell membrane synthesis. Gamma globulins are antibodies or immunoglobulins and are produced by the B lymphocytes. Fibrinogen is a glycoprotein coping that is made in the liver and is important for creating fibrin clots to occlude blood vessels if they are broken open and are bleeding (Surinova, Schiess, Hüttenhain, Cerciello, Wollscheid, & Aebersold, 2018).
Explain the difference between petechiae and ecchymoses. Identify one condition where each may occur.
Petechiae are tiny round purple spots that occur on the skin and are the result of bleeding underneath the skin from trauma. An example of this is an adolescent tying a sweater around their neck and cutting off circulation. They would appear to have petechiae on their face after the event. Mickey Mouse this is a bruise. Ecchymosis is discoloration of the skin that results from bleeding underneath, also known as a bruise. Bruises can occur from bumping your arm on the table as you walk by it. The main difference between petechiae and ecchymoses is how they manifest, petechiae is scattered tiny dots, while a bruise is a localized area (VanMeter & Hubert, 2018).
Explain how a deep vein thrombosis in a large vein in the leg can result in a life-threatening condition such as a stroke or myocardial infarction.
A thrombus forms in a valve pocket of the vein in the leg and is composed of fibrin and red blood cells. According to the CDC, a DVT is not likely to cause a stroke or a myocardial infarction due to the fact it is in a vein and artery. Not sure if this was a trick question. But there is a risk of developing a pulmonary embolism where the cloud will break off and go into the lung (CDC, 2020).
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Katie has been diagnosed with leukemia and she is wondering if it is safe to go to the dentist. Her WBC and platelet counts are still low from chemotherapy. What are the risks associated with invasive procedures while her counts are decreased? How would you explain these to Katie? Include a discussion of why bleeding and multiple opportunistic infections are common in patients with leukemia.
There is associated with having a dental procedure done with a low WBC and platelet count is the risk of infection
and bleeding. if Katie develops an infection from the dental procedure, it would be very difficult to treat the infection due to the state of her immunocompromised condition from chemotherapy. People who have leukemia are subjected to multiple opportunistic infections because they have nonfunctional WBCs so they cannot fight off the infectious agents. The problem with her having low platelets increases her risk for bleeding that would be difficult to stop, spontaneous hemorrhaging, which could have very serious health outcomes (VanMeter & Hubert, 2018). If Katie would like a dental visit it would need to be planned out around her therapy and she may need to take prophylactic antibiotics.
Blood Clots (Deep Vein Thrombosis). (2020, May 28). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/survivors/patients/blood-clots.htm
Surinova, S., Schiess, R., Hüttenhain, R., Cerciello, F., Wollscheid, B., & Aebersold, R. (2018). On the Development of Plasma Protein Biomarkers. Journal of Proteome Research, 10(1), 5–16. https://doi.org/10.1021/pr1008515
VanMeter, K. C., & Hubert, R. J. (2018). Gould’s pathophysiology for the health professions. (6th ed.). Elsevier Saunders.
Describe the three stages of hemostasis.
Hemostasis is the process of stopping bleeding. This occurs in three steps. First, in response to injury, the blood vessel vasoconstricts or spasms. This decreases blood flow to the area. Secondly, the thrombocytes adhere to underlying tissue at the site of the injury. Platelet plugs form during this step if the blood vessel is small. Finally, the blood clotting/ coagulation mechanism is activated. A cascade reaction by the different clotting factors occurs here to form a blood clot (Hubert & Van Meter, 2018).
Explain the difference between the terms microcytic and megaloblastic. Identify one condition where each may occur.
Microcytosis is when the red blood cell (RBC) size is smaller than the normal range. (Gotter, 2019). A condition where this may occur is in iron-deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is a form of anemia where the red blood cells are larger than normal and there is a decrease in the number of those cells. This is usually due to acquired deficiency in vitamin B12 or folic acid. Pernicious anemia is a type of megaloblastic anemia (Boston Children’s Hospital, 2017).
Compare the general effects of the general states of anemia and polycythemia in terms of hemoglobin level, hematocrit, general appearance, and possible complications. There can be different causes for these conditions. Compare their general presentation, regardless of cause.
In anemia, the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels are low. This can be due to a deficiency of a required nutrient such as iron, bone marrow function is impaired when there is excessive blood loss or a significant destruction of erythrocytes. The general appearance in patients with anemia are fatigue, pallor, dyspnea, and tachycardia, and chest pain (if severe). Possible complications for anemia are oxygen deficit, congestive heart failure if there is a significant reduction in oxygen supply to the heart, and decreased regeneration of epithelial cells may cause inflammation and ulcers in the digestive tract.
Polycythemia is when there is an increased number of erythrocytes. This causes the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to be high. Patients with polycythemia appear plethoric and cyanotic. These patients are overfilled with blood. There is a bluish-red tone of the skin and mucosa. Patients may also experience pruritus, dyspnea, headaches, and visual disturbances. Possible complications from polycythemia are increased blood pressure, hepatomegaly, thrombosis and infarctions throughout the body, congestive heart failure, and joint pain if the uric acid levels are high (Hubert & Van Meter, 2018).
In patients with leukemia, the mouth and mucosa of the digestive tract are usually inflamed and ulcerated because of anemia, the effects of chemotherapy, and the presence of infections, such as candidiasis. Explain how this situation would affect food and fluid intake and list some possible subsequent effects on the patient with leukemia.
Food and fluid intake is limited in patients with leukemia who are experiencing an inflamed and ulcerated digestive tract, effects of chemotherapy, and the presence of infections such as candidiasis. This is because patients do not want to eat and drink if they do not feel well or know it will cause them pain and discomfort. This can lead to dehydration, weight loss, fatigue, fever, kidney stones, as well as an overall impaired ability to get better. The body requires hydration and nutrients to function, and if the body is deprived of that, it cannot do its intended job.
Gotter, A. (2019). Everything You Need to Know About Microcytic Anemia. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/microcytic-anemia
Hubert, R. J., & VanMeter, K. C. (2018). Pathophysiology Online for Gould’s Pathophysiology for the Health Professions (6th ed.). Elsevier.
Megaloblastic Anemia | Boston Children’s Hospital. (2017). Megaloblastic Anemia. https://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions/m/megaloblastic-anemia