NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

The patient in the case study presents with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He has a drug abuse history and likely Hepatitis C. The current drug therapy includes Synthroid, Nifedipine, and Prednisone. The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the diagnosis and appropriate pharmacotherapy for the patient.

Diagnosis

Hepatitis C infection is the presumptive diagnosis. This is a liver inflammation caused by Hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is spread through sexual intercourse with infected persons, sharing personal items, and sharing drug-injection equipment (Ghany et al., 2020). Most infected persons are asymptomatic. Symptomatic cases present symptoms like fatigue, fever, reduced appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, pale feces, dark urine, myalgia, and jaundice (Jin, 2020). Therefore, Hepatitis C is the primary diagnosis because of the positive symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and the client’s history of drug abuse and Hepatitis C infection.

Appropriate Drug Therapy

The recommended drug therapy will include a combination of Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (Technivie) for 12 weeks to treat Hepatitis C infection. Technivie is indicated for HCV infection in patients without cirrhosis. Ombitasvir inhibits HCV NS5A, which is needed for Hepatitis C viral replication. Paritaprevir inhibits NS3/4A serine protease required for proteolytic cleavage of the HCV-encoded polyprotein into mature forms (Wu et al., 2019). Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor that elevates paritaprevir serum levels. Nifedipine would be reduced to 10 mg and Prednisone to 5 mg since they are associated with GI side effects.

Conclusion

The patient’s nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea symptoms are consistent with Hepatitis C infection. Besides, the history of Hepatitis C and drug abuse make HCV infection the likely diagnosis. A combination of Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir will be recommended to treat the HCV infection,

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References

Ghany, M. G., Morgan, T. R., & AASLD‐IDSA hepatitis C guidance panel. (2020). Hepatitis C guidance 2019 update: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases–Infectious Diseases Society of America recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology71(2), 686–721. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.31060

Jin, J. (2020). Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection. JAMA323(10), 1008-1008. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1761

Wu, J., Huang, P., Fan, H., Tian, T., Xia, X., Fu, Z., … & Zhang, Y. (2019). Effectiveness of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, dasabuvir for HCV in HIV/HCV coinfected subjects: a comprehensive analysis. Virology journal16(1), 1–10.

The case study concerns a 46-year-old female with reports of RUQ pain for the past 24 hours. The pain began an

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders
NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

hour after having a large dinner. She also experienced nausea and one vomiting episode prior to the presentation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the likely diagnosis and treatment plan.

Diagnosis

The likely diagnosis for this patient is Acute cholecystitis. This is a gallbladder inflammation that progresses over hours due to a gallstone obstructing the cystic duct. Gallaher & Charles (2022) explain that the classic presentation of Acute cholecystitis includes acute RUQ pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting associated with eating and physical exam findings of RUQ tenderness. Acute cholecystitis manifests with a high WBC count indicating inflammation (Bridges et al., 2018). In addition, serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase may be increased, pointing to abnormalities in liver function in persons with severe biliary obstruction (Doherty et al., 2022). Direct and indirect serum bilirubin levels are also increased. Acute cholecystitis is the selected diagnosis owing to postprandial RUQ pain, nausea, vomiting, mild abdominal tenderness, high WBC, and elevated Bilirubin levels.

Drug Therapy

Drug therapy will include antibiotics with IV Ceftriaxone 2 g once daily and IV metronidazole 500 mg every 8 hours. These antibiotics have adequate coverage against the most common pathogens (Gallaher & Charles, 2022). An antiemetic like Prochlorperazine IV 2.5 mg every 4 hours will be administered to alleviate nausea and prevent fluid and electrolyte disorders caused by vomiting. Oxycodone/acetaminophen 1 tablet orally every 6 hours will be prescribed for pain control.

Conclusion

Positive findings of postprandial RUQ pain, nausea, vomiting, mild abdominal tenderness, high WBC, and elevated Bilirubin levels indicate likely Acute cholecystitis. When a gallstone impacts the cystic duct and continuously obstructs it, it results in acute inflammation causing cholecystitis. Drug therapy will include antibiotics with Ceftriaxone and Metronidazole, antiemetic with Prochlorperazine, and Oxycodone/acetaminophen for pain relief.

 

 

 

References

Bridges, F., Gibbs, J., Melamed, J., Cussatti, E., & White, S. (2018). Clinically diagnosed cholecystitis: a case series. Journal of surgical case reports2018(2), rjy031. https://doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjy031

Doherty, G., Manktelow, M., Skelly, B., Gillespie, P., Bjourson, A. J., & Watterson, S. (2022). The Need for Standardizing Diagnosis, Treatment and Clinical Care of Cholecystitis and Biliary Colic in Gallbladder Disease. Medicina58(3), 388. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58030388

Gallaher, J. R., & Charles, A. (2022). Acute Cholecystitis: A Review. JAMA327(10), 965–975. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.2350