NURS 8201 t-Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice

NURS 8201 t-Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice

NURS 8201 t-Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice

In a descriptive cross-sectional design survey to identify predictors of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurse’s practice of evidence-based practice (EBP) guidelines, the result reviewed two variables associated with why ICU nurses are not consistently practicing EBP (Ashraf et al. 2020). One hundred thirty-two participants were conveniently recruited from the ICU of two different hospitals. Self-reported questionnaires were utilized, including the EBP questionnaire and EBP barrier scale. Pearson correlation test, student t-test, and ANOVA were conducted. The analysis revealed that the mean score of ICU nurses’ EBP was 4.29 (SD = 1.50) out of 7, which was the low level of EBP. This result compared with the prior researcher at 4.3 out of 7. Attitude and knowledge were the significant predictors for the practice of EBP, while the biggest barrier to practice EBP was the setting barrier, with a mean score of 3.02 out of 4. Setting barrier was explained as lack of resources regarding health care, overload work, and low support from hospital administration to apply EBP (Ashraf, 2020).

The application of statistical analysis help researchers reveals a potential issue with why EBP is lacking in ICU. The study’s outcome added a new predictor and gave direction to how educational programs for nurses and improvement in setting barriers can enhance the practice of EBP at the workplace.



Ashraf A., Omar T., Jamal A. S., Omar, A., & Muhammad W. D. (2020). Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Nurses’ Practice of Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines. Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing57

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This is insightful , determination of nurse’s attitudes towards evidence-based nursing is critical in nursing and general healthcare practices. The entire research process is viable because it leads to the knowledge necessary to provide quality healthcare practices (Liyew et al., 2020). The application of questionnaires is one of the best approaches for data collection. It involves the collection of row data from the identified respondents. Also, the sample size that has been used in the study is fair enough in determining effective study outcomes. The application of correlation and ANOVA approaches is essential in ensuring the determination of viable research outcomes (Plonsky & Oswald, 2017). A strong and positive correlation indicates that nurses positively impacted evidence-based nursing practices. The correlation coefficient can be confirmed through the use of ANOVA in data analysis (Kim et al., 2020). In general, inferential statistics are necessary for the determination of generally positive outcomes in the research process. The result shows that healthcare organizations are ready to implement evidence-based practices given the positive attitude of the nurses/other healthcare workers.

Question:  what are some other inferential statistics measures that can be applied in the determination of correlation between the variables under the study?



Liyew, B., Dejen Tilahun, A., & Kassew, T. (2020). Knowledge, attitude, and associated factors towards physical assessment among nurses working in intensive care units: a multicenter cross-sectional study. Critical Care Research and Practice2020.


Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2017). Multiple regression as a flexible alternative to ANOVA in L2 research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition39(3), 579-592.

Kim, M., Mallory, C., & Valerio, T. (2020). Statistics for evidence-based practice in nursing. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Hi, thank you for the post. To begin with, nurses are evidence-based practice (EBP) advocates and agents of

NURS 8201 t-Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice
NURS 8201 t-Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice

evidence-based change in their clinical setting. I agree with you that nurses are also the largest health care workforce. Therefore, they can have a major impact on the provision of evidence-based care to patients. However, nurses can also face barriers to EBP in their practice setting (Shayan et al., 2019). The study you have chosen for this discussion is equally relevant and informative. On the one hand, it provides data to describe nurses’ attitudes toward EBP (Dikmen et al., 2019). On the other hand, it illustrates how descriptive and inferential statistics can be helpful in the analysis of correlations. Yet, how consistent is the statistical analysis performed in the study?

As mentioned in your post, the researchers in your chosen study used both descriptive and inferential statistics. For the latter, Dikmen et al. (2019) used ANOVA, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation. Each of these have proved useful in the analysis of statistical correlations. However, it appears that researchers often fail to include essential information about the statistical tests used, thus limiting the transparency of their research procedures. Weissgerber et al. (2018) say that researchers should not only specify the type of ANOVA used (i.e., one- or two-way ANOVA) but also include the name and level for each factor, report the F-statistic, and mention if any post-hoc tests were performed.

The study mentioned in your post includes just a brief discussion of both the methods and results (Dikmen et al., 2019). Therefore, it is difficult to ascertain that descriptive and inferential statistics were used appropriately, and that the researchers were able to address the risks of statistical error and bias. I agree with you that inferential statistics has strengthened the descriptive statistics provided in the article, but I think that the researchers should have been more detailed describing their data analysis procedures. Do you agree?


Dikmen, Y., Filiz, N.Y., Tanrikulu, F., Yilmaz, D., & Kuzgun, H. (2019). Attitudes of

intensive care nurses towards evidence-based nursing. International Journal of Health Sciences & Research, 8(1), 138-143.

Shayan, S.J., Kiwanuka, F., & Nakaye, Z. (2019). Barriers associated with evidence-based

practice among nurses in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 16(1), 12-20.

Weissberger, T.L., Garcia-Valencia, O., Garovic, V.D., Milic, N.M., & Winham, S.J. (2018).

Why we need to report more than ‘Data were analyzed by t-tests or ANOVA’. eLife, 7, e36163.

Thank you for sharing your views on the discussion!  Nurses are the primary care providers and their interaction with evidence-based practices is critical in evaluating best practices. It was informative to learn that from the ANOVA analysis you posted that intensive care is impacted by nurses and there was a positive correlation between attitudes of nurses and evidence-based practices (Dikmen et al., 2019). I agree with you that the inclusion of evidence-based practice in healthcare provides nurses with scientific research to make well-informed decisions. Through evidence-based practices, healthcare providers can stay updated with new interventions in medical care.  With EBP knowledge healthcare providers can examine and critique research to comprehend the efficacy of assessment, differential diagnosis and treatment of illness (Gallagher‐Ford et al., 2020).  With evidence, best interventions patients are actively included in the treatment care plan. Clients play a proactive role by raising their concerns, values, preferences and suggestions on the kind of care they want (Ruzafa‐Martínez et al., 2020). EBP helps organizations to improve patient outcomes and reduce medical costs by avoiding outdated care procedures which may be costly. Thank you for your inputs!




Dikmen, Y., Filiz, N. Y., Tanrıkulu, F., Yılmaz, D., & Kuzgun, H. (2018). Attitudes of intensive care nurses towards evidence-based nursing. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research8(1), 138-143.

Gallagher‐Ford, L., Koshy Thomas, B., Connor, L., Sinnott, L. T., & Melnyk, B. M. (2020). The Effects of an Intensive Evidence‐Based Practice Educational and Skills Building Program on EBP Competency and Attributes. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing17(1), 71-81.

Ruzafa‐Martínez, M., Fernández‐Salazar, S., Leal‐Costa, C., & Ramos‐Morcillo, A. J. (2020). Questionnaire to Evaluate the Competency in Evidence‐Based Practice of Registered Nurses (EBP‐COQ Prof©): Development and Psychometric Validation. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing17(5), 366-375.