PHN 652 Benchmark – Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

PHN 652 Benchmark – Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

PHN 652 Benchmark – Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Health promotion and disease prevention stress on keeping individuals healthy. Besides, they often deal with social determinants of health, which influence modifiable risk behaviors. The general wellness of people in society is connected to health promotion and disease prevention since they seek to involve and empower people and communities to choose healthy behaviors (White, 2020). The purpose of this paper is to describe disease prevention and health promotion and the role of evidence-based strategies in their success.

Disease Prevention

Disease prevention is associated with public health nursing measures like improved sanitation and preventive medical measures like immunization and health-protective legislation. It is categorized into three categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention entails an attempt to eliminate the chances of getting a disease through interventions like immunization (White, 2020). Health education is provided at this level and is directed to healthy individuals to prevent diseases, for example, by advising on hygiene. In secondary prevention, individuals are caught in the early stages of a disease through early detection of symptoms. Consequently, the disease can be alleviated and, if possible, eliminated (White, 2020). Tertiary prevention entails the control and reduction of an already established illness (White, 2020). It takes care of chronic conditions and ensures that individuals can be empowered to take control of the disease and better their health through rehabilitation.

Disease Prevention Model

The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is one of the disease prevention models that can be applied at the community, systems, and individual levels. It describes how a person or organization incorporates new behaviors, goals, and programs at various levels. TTM asserts that change in health behavior progresses through six stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination (Martinasek et al., 2021). Various intervention strategies are employed at each stage to help a person progress to the next stage and through the model. TTM can be applied to disease prevention programs to address various health behaviors, populations, and settings. It is an appropriate model for disease prevention programs related to tobacco use, weight management, worksite wellness, treatment compliance, physical activity, and addiction.

In the pre-contemplation stage, an individual usually has no plan of taking an initiative. In the contemplation stage, there is intent on taking measures and a plan to implement in the near future. Besides, in the preparation stage, there is intent on taking the initiative, and an individual usually has taken some steps. In the action stage, behavior is usually modified for some time (Martinasek et al., 2021). Furthermore, in the maintenance stage, a person usually has changed behavior and continues to maintain it for the long term. Lastly, in the termination stage, a person generally has no longing to return to previous negative behaviors.

Analysis of the Benefits and Concerns of Utilizing TTM

The benefit of using the TTM is that it offers a framework for conceptualizing and measuring behavior change. Besides, it facilitates disease prevention strategies that are personalized and easily implemented. Studies have found that the theoretical mechanisms for behavior modification indicated in the TTM are consistent even with a range of behaviors and populations (Martinasek et al., 2021). Besides, research reports show the successful use of TTM-based strategies to promote various health behaviors among different populations. A key strength of the TTM is the ability to tailor its constructs to fit a person’s readiness to begin behavior modification, making personalized-based interventions relevant at the population level. Furthermore, it can merge clinical and public health interventions, resulting in maximum success in health behavior change and promoting disease prevention.

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Nevertheless, there have been concerns that directly using the TTM and its measurement scales across health behaviors without initial scientific rigor is challenging. TTM has also been criticized based on categorizing behavior change into five distinct stages rather than being outlined as a continuous process (Martinasek et al., 2021). Besides, there has been a concern of ambiguity on using time-frames to operationalize the TTM stages. Thus, researchers have proposed eliminating TTM time-frames and integrating various psychological variables to classify people along a behavior change continuum.

Health Promotion

Health promotion refers to the art and science of helping individuals change their lifestyles to move towards a state

PHN 652 Benchmark - Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
PHN 652 Benchmark – Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

of optimal health. Optimal health refers to a state of physical, social, emotional, spiritual, and intellectual health. Lifestyle modification can be facilitated by combining efforts to increase awareness, modify behavior, and create an environment that promotes or supports good health practices (Pronk et al., 2020). The Alma Altar Declaration of 1978 outlines five key areas for health promotion: Building public health policy, Creating a supportive environment, Strengthening community action, Developing personal skills, ad Re-orientation of health services.

Health Promotion Model

The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a theoretical model used to guide health promotion at the community, health systems, and individual levels. It is one of the most utilized models for understanding health behaviors. The major elements of the HBM focus on a person’s beliefs about diseases, which predict personal health-related behaviors. HBM outlines the major factors that impact health behaviors as a person’s perceived threat to disease, beliefs of consequence, possible positive benefits of action, perceived barriers to action, exposure to factors that trigger action, and confidence in the capacity to succeed. HBM can be appropriately used alone or in combination with other health promotion models (Alsulaiman & Rentner, 2021). It is crucial to recognize “cues to action” that are significant and suitable for the target population to promote success with the HBM.

Benefits and Concerns With Utilizing HBM

The major strength of the HBM is that it was developed by researchers who directly worked with health behaviors. One benefit of HBM is that it can be employed to design short- and long-term health promotion interventions. The model can be used to design health programs to decrease barriers, increase knowledge, and motivate individuals to make healthier lifestyle choices when they understand the factors that influence health choices (Alsulaiman & Rentner, 2021). Furthermore, the HBM can be adapted to predict a myriad of health-related behaviors, such as evaluating individuals for the early detection of asymptomatic diseases like COVID-19 and getting vaccinated like the annual influenza shot.

There are several concerns about the HBM, which limit its use in public health. Firstly, it does not consider an individual’s attitude, beliefs, or other factors that dictate the person’s approval of health behavior. Besides, it does not consider customary behaviors; therefore, it may inform the decision-making process to agree to a recommended action. HBM does not consider behaviors carried out for non-health-related reasons, like social acceptability (Alsulaiman & Rentner, 2021). Furthermore, it fails to consider environmental or economic factors that may hinder or facilitate the recommended action. Another concern is that HBM assumes that every person has access to equal amounts of information on health conditions and that cues to action are common in motivating individuals to act.

The Role Evidence-Based Practice Plays In The Success of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

EBP in public health helps significantly improve population health and lower the disease burden in populations. It entails making decisions based on the best available scientific evidence through sound data collection and research methods while involving the target community in decision-making. EBP helps provide the best quality care in disease prevention and health promotion (Allen et al., 2018). It also ensures that disease prevention and health promotion interventions are delivered safely and effectively. Furthermore, an EBP approach promotes success in disease prevention and health promotion by enabling public health nurses to access more and higher-quality information on best practices (Allen et al., 2018). Besides, EBP promotes a higher chance of successful prevention programs and policies, improved workforce productivity, and increase efficient utilization of public and private resources.

The Role Of Health Teaching In Disease Prevention And Health Promotion

Health education is one approach for executing health promotion and disease prevention programs. It entails giving information and advice and facilitating the development of skills and knowledge to promote behavior change. It aims at promoting behavior change and actions through increased knowledge. Thus, the health teaching activities should improve the overall goal of the health promotion and disease prevention program (Allen et al., 2018). Health education is a two-way process of conscious raising, elaborating values, examining attitudes, enlightening policymakers, and helping individuals take control over their health. It is applied in all three disease prevention levels and health promotion. Health teaching presents information to a specific population on specific health topics, including the health benefits or threats they face (Allen et al., 2018). Furthermore, it avails tools to build capacity and support behavior modification in a suitable setting. Health teaching programs on health promotion and disease prevention promote long-term critical thinking processes that result in positive health choices, behavior change, and healthy lifestyles.


Disease prevention interventions take place outside the health sector and before the disease occur. TTM is one of the disease prevention models and explains a person’s readiness to change their behavior. On the other hand, health promotion involves helping people change their lifestyles toward optimal health. The Health belief model is one of the models applied in health promotion and is used to explain and predict changes in health behaviors among individuals. EBP guides decision-making in the increasing complexity of health care decisions in health-promoting and disease prevention.


Allen, P., Jacob, R. R., Lakshman, M., Best, L. A., Bass, K., & Brownson, R. C. (2018). Lessons learned in promoting evidence-based public health: perspectives from managers in state public health departments. Journal of community health43(5), 856-863.

Alsulaiman, S. A., & Rentner, T. L. (2021). The use of the health belief model to assess U.S. college students’ perceptions of COVID-19 and adherence to preventive measures. Journal of public health research10(4), 2273.

Martinasek, M., Tamulevicius, N., Gibson-Young, L., McDaniel, J., Moss, S. J., Pfeffer, I., & Lipski, B. (2021). Predictors of Vaping Behavior Change in Young Adults Using the Transtheoretical Model: A Multi-Country Study. Tobacco Use Insights.

Pronk, N., Kleinman, D. V., Goekler, S. F., Ochiai, E., Blakey, C., & Brewer, K. H. (2020). Promoting Health and Well-being in Healthy People.

White, F. (2020). Application of disease etiology and natural history to prevention in primary health care: a discourse. Medical Principles and Practice29(6), 501-513.