PHN 652 Benchmark – Population Needs Intervention Development

PHN 652 Benchmark – Population Needs Intervention Development

PHN 652 Benchmark – Population Needs Intervention Development

Introduction

The promotion of public health is an important role for nurses and other healthcare providers. Nurses and other healthcare providers explore the health problems that affect their publics and ways of addressing them. The select best practice interventions that are associated with optimum benefits and minimal harm to their populations. Nurses and other healthcare providers play critical roles in the management and prevention of health problems such as drug and substance abuse. They ensure that the public is made aware about the risk factors, effects, prevention and management of substance abuse. Therefore, this presentation focuses on the control of substance abuse in adults in America.

Description of the Selected Population

The selected issue for analysis is substance abuse among adults. Drug and substance abuse refers to the harmful use of psychoactive substances such as illicit drugs and alcohol. Drug and substance abuse is a common problem among the adult populations in America. The high prevalence can be seen from the state statistics as well as those released by organizations such as the CDC and WHO. Drug and substance abuse have negative health effects. They include increased risk of addiction, organ damage, loss of productivity, and mental health problems. The risk factors for drug and substance abuse among adults are varied. They include the effect of peer pressure, poor social support and family structures, adverse advertising of substances such as alcohol and cigarette, and the characteristics of the neighborhoods. Therefore, there is an increased need to focus interventions on addressing the critical drivers of drug and substance abuse in societies.

Statistics of Substance Abuse in the Selected Population

The existing evidence shows worrying statistics about the issue of substance and drug abuse in adults. The data by the American Addiction Centers shows that more than 19.7 million people were suffering from drug and substance abuse in America in 2017. The data also showed that alcohol abuse is the leading cause of substance abuse that affects 74% of the adults. The prevalence of substance abuse in America is significantly high. This can be seen from the statistics that 1 in every 8 adults in the state suffer from alcohol and substance abuse disorder. Treating substance abuse problems is highly expensive for the American government. Accordingly, the state spends more than $750 billion annually on substance abuse problems. The cost is attributed to treatment, hospital admissions, lost productivity, and absenteeism among the people affected  by substance abuse problems. Therefore, responsive interventions are needed to address the problem.

Data Used in Determining Health Need

Determining the health needs of adults who abuse drugs and substances is achievable using several types of data. The first one is the data on the community statistics on substance abuse. Community statistics can be obtained from departments such as justice and correctional facilities for use in determining the severity of the issue in a society. The other source of data is public health data. Hospitals collect data on substance and drug abuse, which is sent to the local public health authorities. The data is used to monitor the trends in drugs and substance abuse. The collected data is also utilized in the state to predict the severity and interventions that are needed to address the issue. The last source of data is the government databases. Databases such as those of the CDC, WHO, NIDA, and SAMHSA can be used to determine the severity of the issue of drug and substance abuse.

Interventions in Place

Several interventions currently exist to address the issue of drug and substance abuse among the adults. One of the

PHN 652 Benchmark - Population Needs Intervention Development
PHN 652 Benchmark – Population Needs Intervention Development

interventions is the youth focused prevention initiatives. The youth focused prevention initiatives target the elderly youth and young adults by raising their awareness about issues related to drug and substance abuse. The initiatives empower them about the knowledge and skills that they need to overcome addiction and substance abuse. The other intervention is educational initiatives. Educational initiatives aim at creating awareness among the adults and the public as a whole about drug and substance abuse. The other intervention is the competence enhancement programs. The programs strengthen knowledge and skill development among the adults to ensure that they can overcome their addiction programs. Lastly are the universal prevention interventions. The interventions comprise of all the strategies that target the entire populations affected by and at risk of drug and substance abuse. The interventions are universally accepted in any context of drug and substance abuse.

Intervention Targeted to the Population

The recommended intervention that should be utilized for adults who abuse drugs is the population specific health education. Health education programs that target the unique needs of the population in a community should be implemented. The health education should aim at increasing the level of awareness among the population and promoting positive change in behavior. Health education should also address the critical needs of the population. Through it, the intervention will ensure that barriers to healthy living among those abusing drugs are eliminated. Therefore, rather than universal interventions, selective interventions are recommended to address the critical care needs affecting the adults who abuse drugs.

Rationale for the Intervention

One of the reasons as to why the above intervention is needed is because it creates awareness in the community and target population. Targeted education creates awareness about the causes, risk factors, effect, management and prevention of substance and drug abuse. The intervention also promotes a change in behavior in the community and the population. Increased level of awareness stimulates the target population and communities to explore behaviors and lifestyles that they need to promote their healthy living. A change in behavior minimizes the risk as well as predisposition of the population to drug abuse. The intervention also promotes sustainable change. Through health education, the target community and population learns about small, achievable strategies that they need to live a healthy life. The implementation of small, successful steps ensures sustainability of the change, hence, promoting the health of the target population. Lastly, the intervention addresses barriers to change among those affected by or at risk of substance and drug abuse. Health education empowers the affected and those at risk to take responsibility for their lives, minimizing fear to engage in activities that promote healthy living in the affected.

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Resources for the Intervention

A number of evidence-based resources are needed for the successful implementation of the intervention. The first one is skilled human resources. skilled human resources including healthcare providers are needed for the successful implementation of the intervention. Healthcare providers such as the nurses are needed to educate the population about health promotion on issues related to substance and drug abuse. Community members are the other resources. community members are the critical implementers of the intervention. They implement the intervention recommendations in their daily routines, hence, the need for the consideration of the role they play in the process. The other resource is financial support. Adequate financial support is needed to coordinate efficiently the initiatives needed for the intervention. For example, training the implementers requires financial resources for purchase of materials and remuneration of the stakeholders involved. Lastly, there is the need for resources in the form of support from the government and non-governmental institutions. The institutions guide the frameworks utilized in the implementation of the intervention.

Stakeholders

The successful implementation of the intervention will require a number of stakeholders. One of them are the community leaders. Community leaders will play the role of mobilizing the community members to support the initiative. They also act as the informants for the other key stakeholders in the project. The other stakeholder comprises of the community members. Community members will be involved in the direct implementation of the intervention. As a result, they should play an active role in all the processes of the intervention. The third stakeholder comprises of the healthcare providers. Healthcare providers will educate the target population and community about the dangers, risk factors, management and prevention of substance and drug abuse. The other stakeholders will be the representatives from religious, governmental and non-governmental institituions. The representatives will provide input into the effective strategies that are needed for the successful implementation of the intervention.

Interventions to Ensure Cultural Sensitivity

The proposed intervention to address the issue of drug and substance abuse among the adults should be sensitive to the cultural needs of the target population and the community as a whole. A number of interventions are recommended for use in ensuring cultural sensitivity of the intervention to the community and the population. One of the interventions is performing needs assessment. Needs assessment should be performed to determine the knowledge and skills that the target community has towards the prevention and management of substance abuse problems. Needs assessment also provides insights into the cultural values, beliefs, and preferences that should inform the intervention being adopted. The second step is encouraging active stakeholder participation. Active stakeholder participation would enable the team members and the target population to express their needs, issues, and concerns related to the intervention. Active participation will also ensure the incorporation of the multidimensional strategies into the prevention and control of substance abuse among adults. The third step would be the prioritization of the cultural needs, values and preferences of the target population. Prioritization would ensure that the critical needs of the community and the population are respected in the implementation of the intervention. Through it, the rate of acceptance of the intervention will increase significantly. The last step is training implementers of the intervention on intercultural communication. The implementers of the intervention should be competent in working with the target community and population. They should understand the values, beliefs and preferences of the population and community. Therefore, training will be offered to ensure that they are competent in ensuring successful implementation of the intervention.

References

American Addiction Centers. (2021). Addiction Statistics | Drug & Substance Abuse Statistics. American Addiction Centers. https://americanaddictioncenters.org/rehab-guide/addiction-statistics

´Ayenew, M., Kabeta, T., & Woldemichael, K. (2020). Prevalence and factors associated with substance use among street children in Jimma town, Oromiya national regional state, Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 15(1), 61. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00304-3

´Davis, J. P., Smith, D. C., & Briley, D. A. (2017). Substance use prevention and treatment outcomes for emerging adults in non-college settings: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 31(3), 242–254. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000267

´Jackson, K. M., Janssen, T., & Gabrielli, J. (2018). Media/Marketing Influences on Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse. Current Addiction Reports, 5(2), 146–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-018-0199-6

´Jiang, S., Wu, L., & Gao, X. (2017). Beyond face-to-face individual counseling: A systematic review on alternative modes of motivational interviewing in substance abuse treatment and prevention. Addictive Behaviors, 73, 216–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.023