PHN 652 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative or quantitative data

PHN 652 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative or quantitative data

PHN 652 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative or quantitative data

The public health nurse can access data sources when it comes to investigating diseases or outbreaks, by tapping into the U.S Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The HHS is most heavily involved in the health and warfare concerns of U.S citizens, (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2019). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) are great resources to access that analyze surveillance data on disease or condition outbreaks. The most important public health nursing reasons for investigating an outbreak are to help guide disease prevention and control strategies. Even for diseases that are well characterized, an outbreak may provide opportunities to gain additional knowledge by assessing the impact of control measures and the usefulness of new epidemiology and laboratory technique, (CDC, 2012). Most outbreaks come to the attention of health authorities because an alert clinician is concerned enough to call the health department. Another reporting source for apparent clusters of both infectious and noninfectious diseases is patients or other members of the community. There are numerous sources of data that the public health nurse can utilize to gain information when investigating disease or condition outbreaks.

Reference

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2012). Investigating an Outbreak: Uncovering outbreaks Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson6/section1.html#

Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2019). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (10th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323582247

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Data surveillance is important to identify trends and disease patterns with available resources. There are multiple sources of data that a public health nurse can use when investigating a disease or condition outbreak. CDC.gov is usually a good starting place. The CDC epidemiologist work with multiple potential data sources to consider what data is relevant to the condition. The CDC can look at primary source, such as public health departments, a mandatory reporter that has first-hand access to notifiable disease case data. Secondary, the CDC can receive secondary sources from hospital discharges on chronic disease and injuries. Ways for public health nurses to collect information on risk behaviors can be completed by population-based surveys, census.gov and the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The vital statistic reports, mortality, are death certificates, medical examiners report and birth certificates. The morbidity is information from notifiable disease reports, lab reports, hospital discharge summaries, billing data, environmental and sentinel surveys.

CDC.gov. (2018). Collecting Data. Collecting Data | Epidemic Intelligence Service | CDC

 

Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2019). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (10th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323582247

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Public health nurses are the front line workforce that investigates and responds to disease outbreaks. Professionals

PHN 652 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative or quantitative data
PHN 652 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative or quantitative data

use patient medical records, death certificates, disease registries and case reports from public health department to source data about disease outbreaks (Wu et al., 2018). Nurses can identify patterns and trends from reported cases and develop interventions targeting the most prevalent groups. Case reports, patient medical records and disease registries can help nurses trace contacts to mitigate the spread of diseases (Wu et al., 2018). Public health nurses can also conduct individual surveys in predetermined populations. Surveys enable nurses to gather epidemiological data that guides strategies to improve population health and reduce the risk for diseases and infections (Dey et al., 2020). These sources of data provide evidence supporting the existence and urgency of disease outbreaks. The evidence informs policies and clinical decisions regarding the promotion of population health and wellness.

References

Dey, S. K., Rahman, M. M., Siddiqi, U. R., & Howlader, A. (2020). Analyzing the epidemiological outbreak of COVID‐19: A visual exploratory data analysis approach. Journal of medical virology92(6), 632-638. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25743.

Wu, Y., Yang, Y., Nishiura, H., & Saitoh, M. (2018, June). Deep learning for epidemiological predictions. In The 41st International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research &   

Epidemiologic data are critical in implementing evidence-based control measures to safeguard the public’s health and safety (Hedberg & Maher, 2018). Field epidemiologic investigations are essential in determining the cause of an urgent public health problem that requires immediate intervention such as disease outbreak. During field investigation, many researchers rely on applicable existing data and gathering new data which address the health issue or the objective of the investigation. Sources of data and collection of data method varies from the health topic being address. In regard to collecting new data, it is important to assess for attributes similar to those for surveillance data, such as quality, definitions, timeliness, completeness, simplicity, generalizability, validity, and reliability (Hedberg & Maher, 2018).

Reference

Hedberg, K. & Maher, J. (2018). Collecting data. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/eis/field-epi-manual/chapters/collecting-data.html

An outbreak is determined by the frequency, there is an expected occurrence of cases but when it is exceeded it can be considered an outbreak. An outbreak is an epidemic that is limited to a localized increase in an incidence of diseases. There are multiple outbreaks yearly that the CDC is made aware of, the surveillance systems are what bring to light patterns. The decision to investigate or not a possible outbreak depends on the response and factors to the health problem, the health department itself, and related external factors. Factors that are related to the health problem include: severity of illness, number of cases, source and mode of transmission. The health department will typically decide to investigate an illness if the number of exposed persons are large, the disease is severe, if there are measures in place to control the spread or if there is a risk without investigation of affecting others. An occurrence of a new or rare disease or a change in the pattern of disease in an area is more likely to prompt an investigation than occurrence of a common disease (CDC.gov, 2012).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. (2012). Section 1 of Lesson 6 in Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practicehttps://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson6/section1.html

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Quantitative data refers to data that is countable and measurable. In essence, quantitative data is presented in numerical form. Advantages of using quantitative data include objectivity, time-saving, and generalization. Quantitative data has concrete numerical values that are tested and checked for credibility (Farghaly, 20118). In addition, researchers can replicate experiments and quantitative results. Another advantage is that quantitative data is easier to obtain even in large sample sizes. Quantitative data is generalizable to a larger population thus promoting the application of research findings in the promotion of population health status. The objectivity of quantitative data reduces the susceptibility to research bias (Farghaly, 2018). As such, the quantitative results are accurate and reliable. The major limitation of quantitative data is that it is only applicable to specific case studies. As such, the generalization of conclusions drawn from quantitative data solely relies on hypotheses. I would use quantitative data in the statistical analysis of population demographics.

Qualitative data refers to descriptive data about categorical variables that are presented as symbols or number codes. Advantages of using qualitative data include flexibility, free exchange of information, detail, and ease of data collection (Farghaly, 2018). Qualitative data provides detailed information about the attitudes, perspectives, and feelings of research participants. Researchers are open and ask flexible questions that allow participants to share thoughts on various topic areas. Qualitative data is easy to collect and researchers do not require prior knowledge of research participants (Moises, 2020). Qualitative data is also reliable since researchers consider participants’ responses rather than their perspectives. Qualitative data has a few limitations which include time-consuming, expensive, lack of generalization, respondent bias, and interviewer errors (Moises, 2020). Qualitative data requires researchers to guide the subjects in responding to research topic questions. Therefore, the data depends on participants’ responses which is prone to bias. Researchers can also make errors in the collection and interpretation of quantitative data. Therefore, quantitative data is less reliable compared to quantitative data. I would use qualitative data in the coding or analysis of population content.

References

Farghaly, A. (2018). Comparing and Contrasting Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches in Education: The Peculiar Situation of Medical Education. Education in Medicine Journal10(1).https://doi.org/10.21315/eimj2018.10.1.2

Moises Jr, C. (2020). Online data collection as an adaptation in conducting quantitative and qualitative research during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Education Studies7(11).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v7i11.3336