PHN 652 In your role as a public health nurse, what features or strategies would you implement when evaluating an intervention?

PHN 652 In your role as a public health nurse, what features or strategies would you implement when evaluating an intervention?

PHN 652 In your role as a public health nurse, what features or strategies would you implement when evaluating an intervention?

Week 8: Evaluating Population-Based Interventions Summary

This week we were able to evaluate the evidence-based intervention process. If public health nurses are to help effect change, we must be able to look at community health promotion in the context of the ecological model and social determinants of health (SDOH). This week we analyzed integrative model of promotion at multiple levels (individual, family, aggregate, and community to build a culture of health through community health promotion. I hope you all enjoyed this class and were able to learn more by diving deeper into public health interventions throughout the course.

Published

The features and strategies to implement as a public health nurse (PHN) when evaluating a public health intervention include developing evaluation questions. This will include process evaluation questions that will be used to evaluate how the intervention was implemented and its successes and challenges (Skivington et al., 2021). Outcome evaluation questions will also be developed to assess whether the intervention successfully achieved its goals and assess the intervention’s short- and long-term impact on participants (Skivington et al., 2021). Outcome evaluation is a type of summative study that will examine whether changes occurred in the particular intervention and the level to which changes can be attributed to the intervention.

Conducting a successful evaluation of the public health intervention will need me to identify methods that will be used to obtain appropriate data and evidence. This is because the data collected should align with the evaluation objectives and seek to answer the evaluation research questions (Skivington et al., 2021). Therefore, I will identify methods that I will use to gather qualitative or quantitative data for intervention evaluation. Data availability, reliability, and relevance will be used to determine the data sources for the intervention evaluation. It will also be crucial to decide how much data I will collect for the evaluation (Skivington et al., 2021). The various data sources that I can choose from include surveys, questionnaires, pre- and post-intervention knowledge tests, observations, progress tracking, focus groups, and interviews.

Data collected for evaluation will need to be appropriately managed for future use. Thus, I will identify data management tools consistent with the intervention’s needs. The key features I will look for in the data management tools include backup generation capacity to promote security, data analysis capability, and facilitation of global work or cloud-based functionality (Hamilton & Hopkins, 2019).

References

Hamilton, J. J., & Hopkins, R. S. (2019). Using technologies for data collection and management. The CDC field epidemiology manual. CDC.

Skivington, K., Matthews, L., Simpson, S. A., Craig, P., Baird, J., Blazeby, J. M., … & Moore, L. (2021). A new framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions: update of Medical Research Council guidance. bmj374. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2061

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Evaluation of intervention is a critical process to ensure the efficiency of the interventions and the safety of the patients or the community. Our role as public health nurse is to identify public health issues, conduct research, determine interventions to address the health issues, implement programs and assess interventions or programs. An impact evaluation is defined as a systematic and empirical investigation of the effects of an intervention (Clarke et. al, 2019). This process assesses to what extent of the outcomes experienced by affected individuals or communities were caused by the intervention in question, and what can be ascribed to other factors such as other interventions, socioeconomic trends, and political or environmental conditions. Assessing the impact of interventions is essential to determining future decisions, identifying areas for improvement, and understanding what happen during the intervention (Clarke et al, 2019). Routine data can be an excellent source of information on a large group of patients with various health conditions across different geographical area (Clarke et al., 2019). This data can be helpful in assessing interventions and making sound healthcare decision.

Reference

Clarke, G.M., Conti, S., Wolters, A.T., & Steventon, A. BMJ. (2019). Evaluating the impact of healthcare intervention using routine data. The BMJ, 365. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l2239

Evaluation of population-based interventions refers to the investigation of the impact of the implemented

PHN 652 In your role as a public health nurse, what features or strategies would you implement when evaluating an intervention
PHN 652 In your role as a public health nurse, what features or strategies would you implement when evaluating an intervention

intervention on the affected population. Public health nurses conduct evaluations to determine the extent to which the intervention caused the health outcomes and the contribution of environmental, social, and political factors (Clarke et al., 2019). The aim of evaluating population-based interventions is to identify strengths and improvement gaps to achieve positive and lasting health behavior change impact on the target population. Evaluation involves the comparison of expected outcomes and goals with observed results.

Features and strategies that I would consider in evaluating interventions as a public health nurse include formulation of evaluation questions, determination of evaluation data, and shared decision-making. Evaluation questions align with the implementation purpose, goals, and objectives of the health improvement initiative and what shareholders need to learn (Clarke et al., 2019). These questions guide public health nurses through the evaluation process to measure the successful implementation of population-based interventions. The evaluation process helps nurses find answers about the impact of healthcare interventions.

Nurses can collect measurable patient outcome data to compare with clear objectives. Measurable data include medical records, rate of health utilization, and the adoption rate of implemented intervention. In essence, public health nurses can conduct a before-and-after study to assess observed results and expected outcomes. I can facilitate unbiased comparison to improve the internal and external validity of the evaluation, thus enhancing the generalization of the evaluation results. The rationale is that evaluation validity ensures an evaluation is measuring what it is claiming to measure without accounting for confounding factors (Matheson et al., 2018). The evaluation of public health interventions in the real world is complex and poses methodological challenges (Stojanovic et al., 2020). Therefore, it is crucial to make shared decisions by involving shareholders and interdisciplinary team members in planning and evaluating population-based interventions. These strategies are effective in conducting an effective evaluation of interventions.

References

Clarke, G. M., Conti, S., Wolters, A. T., & Steventon, A. (2019). Evaluating the   impact of healthcare interventions using routine data. BMJ, 365. doi:      https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l2239

Matheson, A., Walton, M., Gray, R., Lindberg, K., Shanthakumar, M., Fyfe, C., … &       Borman, B. (2018). Evaluating a community-based public health intervention    using a complex systems approach. Journal of Public Health40(3), 606-613.          doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdx117

Stojanovic, J., Wübbeler, M., Geis, S., Reviriego, E., Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I., &      Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I. (2020). Evaluating public health interventions: a       neglected area in health technology assessment. Frontiers In Public Health,            106. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00106.

In my future public health nursing practice role, I would be sure to integrate community involvement and knowledge about the entire population with personal, clinical understandings of the health and illness experiences of individuals and families within the population, particularly vulnerable individuals, and families in Los Angeles County. When evaluating a particular intervention the strategies would depend on the health topic, trends, and risk factors of population groups (Centers for Disease and Control ,2022).For example, there is a need to address physical activity, nutrition, and health weight in the community I would Conduct community-wide campaigns; improve access to outdoor recreational facilities; participate in community coalitions or partnerships to address obesity; enhance access to places for physical activity combined with informational outreach activities (Frieden, 2014). This will take working with communities or specific population groups within the community to develop public policy and targeted health promotion and disease prevention activities.

 

References

Centers for Disease and Control (2022). Public Health strategies to improve the health of Individuals with disability. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/documents/foa_1603_2015_publichealthstrategies.pdf

Frieden T. R. (2014). Six components necessary for effective public health program implementation. American journal of public health104(1), 17–22. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301608