PSYC 5304 Investigate Roles in the Collaborative Care Model
PSYC 5304 Investigate Roles in the Collaborative Care Model
Healthcare Roles and Collaboration
Collaborative practice is an essential framework for promoting effective health outcomes and well-being for populations. Collaboration with the interprofessional team and interdisciplinary are both critical to promote positive patient outcomes. Collaboration is important because it promotes a common goal among multiple providers giving care and support to a particular client, which ensures that the needs of this particular person are fully met. Collaboration encounters factors including policies that can either impede or encourage effective collaboration among the different providers as they carry out their respective roles in the care of patients. The purpose of this paper is to identify five professional positions in healthcare and the possible barriers to a communication associated with each role, then analyze policies that either promote of hinder collaboration among mental health providers.
|Methods of Collaboration
|Barriers to Collaboration
|1. Health psychologist
|Apply knowledge of the emotional and psychological aspects of health to promote good health and wellbeing
|Person-to-person collaboration, team collaboration, strategic alliance
| Inadequate levels of autonomy
Insufficient mental health policies
|2. Mental health nurse
|Build a relationship with mental health clients and their families that leads to care and support.
|Team collaboration with the mental health multidisciplinary team.
| Lack of adequate resources (time, training, competence, opportunities)
|Diagnose and treat mental health disorders using pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches
|Person-to-person collaboration, team collaboration
|Insufficient mental healthcare policies
|4. Occupational therapists
|Helping clients to improve or recover from injury or other emotional issues that might impact their daily activities.
|Strategic alliance with other health professionals
| Low motivation for collaboration (working solely vs collaboration) (McLaney et al., 2022)
Poor communication and relatedness
|5. Community Nurse
|Assess the needs of the community and facilitate the necessary interventions. Assist vulnerable populations in accessing health services and avoid social isolation.
|Community level collaboration
|Absence of relatedness (trust, respect, understanding) (Shoesmith, et al., 2019)
Low motivation for collaboration.
Analysis of Mental Health Policies
Section 574.081(c) of the Texas Health and Safety Code ascertains that mental health service users who require continuing care receive the necessary services (MHA, 2020). For example, the policy requires that physicians should prepare a continuing care plan for a patient who is to be discharged or furloughed. The plan should address both the physical and mental needs of the patient including outpatient services and psychoactive medications as required by the client. The physician delivers the plan to the community centre or healthcare provider who will be responsible for delivering the required services, for example, an occupational therapist may be required in the case of injury or to prepare the client with skills to fit back into their employment role. This policy encourages collaboration between a physician and mental health nurse with other professionals such as a psychiatrist, occupational therapist, and community nurse (Rawlinson et al., 2021).
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The policy encourages communication channels among the providers involved in the transition of care, which facilitates effective and successful collaboration. However, the same policy also has a provision that creates complications for collaboration. It states that a patient has the right to refuse continuing treatment. The goal of interdisciplinary collaboration is to promote good health and well-being of individuals (Rugkåsa, Tveit, & Berteig, 2020). If a person refuses treatment after discharge, it becomes difficult to execute the goal because of autonomy issues. Failure to provide continuing care leads to unmet needs, which results in poor health outcomes for populations (Rawlinson et al., 2021). This factor particularly impacts the role of the community nurse who is supposed to coordinate care and resources to support population health. The barrier to collaboration in the form of autonomy challenges limits the role of community nurses in working with patients and other healthcare providers to ensure better health outcomes and the well-being of individuals.
The second policy is the Mental Health Policy’s Integrated Treatment for those in Need. The federal policy seeks to integrate mental health with the wider societal systems including schools, support services, and other institutions in the country. The rationale behind this approach is that there cannot be positive health outcomes in the absence of mental health. Hence, efforts to address and support mental health should be reflected in every part and function of society including services (MHA, 2022). An integrated approach to mental health ensures that mental health care is personalized to the needs of the individual and safe for everyone.
The policy promotes and enhances collaboration because it introduces incentives that encourage workforce
engagement and coordination to enhance mental health outcomes for populations. One of the barriers to collaboration is the lack of training for providers. This policy eliminates this barrier by providing training to all mental and behavioral health providers on evidence-based integration and collaboration practice. Thus, it not only encourages the spirit of collaboration but also ensures that the providers integrate the best evidence in making practice decisions and actions that lead to better mental and physical health outcomes for the people they serve (Rugkåsa et al., 2020). The policy also encourages fair compensation for health homes and other providers to encourage effective integration and collaboration among them to streamline services delivered to mental health patients.
The policy also encourages collaborative practice through the adoption of technology. The policy encourages the health system to provide incentives so that behavioral health providers can integrate meaningful use of health information technology (HIT). HIT is essential for collaboration because of the ease of sharing information and effective communication to support the proper coordination of care for populations (Jacobs & Mkhize, 2021). New technologies such as telehealth support effective collaboration of care in mental health because of enhancing accessibility and connecting various healthcare providers, enabling information sharing to support prompt intervention and support for people with mental health and behavioral issues. For example, technology can link a community nurse and mental health nurse as they coordinate care for a patient transitioning from a psychiatric facility to a community rehabilitation center.
However, the policy still poses a challenge to data security because of the electronic transfer of information that can expose patient health information (PHI) to the risk of a security breach. For example, some authorization laws may impede sharing of information between providers yet, they do not give additional protection to patients (Rawlinson, et al., 2021). Collaboration thrives on information sharing and when certain privacy laws limit access to information, they impede the coordination of care; hence act as barriers to effective collaboration. No doubt, information privacy laws are highly necessary, but they require scrutiny to ensure they do not impede collaborative efforts.
The third policy that impacts mental health care is the Policy of Inclusion, which was created following and landmark ruling Olmstead v. L.C. which illegalized the segregation of people with mental problems especially those considered aggressive and dangerous (HHS, 2018). As a result, the policy has ensured community inclusion for people with mental illnesses and disabilities by providing various support and services. For instance, people have access to housing and community-based services and support with essential needs and other necessities that they require. Moreover, the individuals who are recovering from mental health also receive increased hours of care and support to ensure they become part of the community. Finally, the policy also eliminates restrictive settings for individuals with mental disabilities through access to better accommodation and other supportive services (HHS, 2018).
The Policy of Inclusion is instrumental in collaborative practice because it encourages various healthcare providers working in the case of a particular service user to develop a common goal and pull resources to meet their needs. For example, supporting a person recovering from mental health who also lacks housing requires the involvement of a case manager who collaborates with the psychiatrists or mental health nurse, as well as social workers, occupational therapists, and other providers linked to community-based services. The providers and agencies guided by this policy work to ensure that a person with mental illness participates in the community just like any other normal person.
Examples of professional positions in healthcare include health psychologist, mental health nurse, community nurse, occupational therapist, and psychiatrist. These professionals among others and critical in providing care that support the health and well-being of people with mental and behavioral issues. Their roles are more efficient and effective through collaboration to support the patient. Policies are instrumental in addressing health issues, but they can also impede proper collaboration among healthcare workers. The policies examined are the Policy of Inclusion, Integrated Treatment for those in Need, and the Texas Health and Safety Policy.
HHS. (2018, June 28). Serving People with Disabilities in the Most Integrated Setting: Community Living and Olmstead. Retrieved from HHS.gov: https://www.hhs.gov/civil-rights/for-individuals/special-topics/community-living-and-olmstead/index.html
Jacobs, E., & Mkhize, S. (2021). Multidisciplinary team members’ perceptions regarding advanced psychiatric nurses’ attitudes on mental healthcare. Health SA. , 26:1646. doi: 10.4102/hsag.v26i0.1646.
McLaney, E., Morassaei, S., Hughes, L., Davies, R., Campbell, M., & Di Prospero, L. (2022). A framework for interprofessional team collaboration in a hospital setting: Advancing team competencies and behaviours. Healthcare Management Forum., 35(2):112-117. doi:10.1177/084.
MHA. (2020). Mental Health Policy. Retrieved from Mental Health America: https://mhanational.org/policy-issues
MHA. (2022). Integrated Treatment for Those in Need. Retrieved from Mental Health America: https://mhanational.org/issues/integrated-treatment-those-need
Rawlinson, C., Carron, T., Cohidon, C., Arditi, C., Hong, Q., Pluye, P., . . . Gilles, I. (2021). An Overview of Reviews on Interprofessional Collaboration in Primary Care: Barriers and Facilitators. International Journal of Integrity Care, 21(2):32. doi: 10.5334/ijic.5589.
Rugkåsa, J., Tveit, O., & Berteig, J. (2020). Collaborative care for mental health: a qualitative study of the experiences of patients and health professionals. BMC Health Serv Res, 20, 844. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05691-8.
Shoesmith, W., Borhanuddin, A., Pereira, E., Nordin, N., Giridharan, B., Forman, D., & Fyfe, S. (2019). Barriers and enablers to collaboration in the mental health system in Sabah, Malaysia: towards a theory of collaboration. Journal of Psychology Open, 6(1):e4. doi: 10.1192/bjo.2019.92.