PUB 540 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each

PUB 540 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each

PUB 540 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each

Epidemic is defined as a disease that affects many individuals within a given community, population or region. The Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is defined as unexpected increase in the number of diseases within a geographical location.  According to public health yellow fever, measles, polo and smallpox are prime examples of epidemics. The criteria of contagious is not a criterion for an epidemic. Primary prevention is simply intervening before health effects occurs. Secondary would be screening and tertiary prevention would be post diagnosis to slow or stop.  Primary prevention for yellow fever is preventing mosquitos’ bites during the day and night. For example, use insect repellents, wear long sleeves. Most importantly receive the vaccination. In 2021 we have reported human laboratory confirmed cases of yellow fever in African Region ( Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo).

Pandemic 

 

A pandemic is defined as an epidemic of infectious disease that affects the human population across the continents, regions or globally.  Pandemics can transition into disasters when they cause many deaths.  The rate is rapid, and cases appear every day.  It has been determined that pandemics arise from international travel.  An example of the pandemic would be the Spanish influenza of 1918.  Approximately 50 million people was killed.

Endemic 

 

Is a condition that presents a predictable pattern amongst a certain population when the infectious disease is maintained at a current baseline without any spikes. For example, and endemic would have been chickenpox within the United Kingdom, but malaria wouldn’t be considered. However, in other regions malaria would be considered an endemic.

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References:

 

Grennan D. What Is a Pandemic? JAMA. 2019;321(9):910. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.0700

 

Kelly H. (2011). The classical definition of a pandemic is not elusive. Bulletin of the World Health Organization89(7), 540–541. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.11.088815

 

Outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics-what you need to know. APIC. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2022, from https://apic.org/monthly_alerts/outbreaks-epidemics-and-pandemics-what-you-need-to-know/ 

As described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an epidemic is an unanticipated rise and increase in disease case rates within a specified geographical area. In most cases, epidemics do not have to be contagious, for example, polio (CDC, 2022). On the other hand, a pandemic, as identified by the World Health Organization (WHO), refers to the exponential growth of disease through elevated rates of spread within days. In such a case, the WHO declares a pandemic and institutes preventable measures. Among the prime examples of pandemics include COVID-19. Further, an endemic relates to the instance where the outbreak of a disease is present consistently but limited within a particular region (CDC, 2022). For example, in the case of malaria, it may increase spontaneously in certain regions without necessarily being contagious.

Notably, a current epidemic affecting global health is the Rift Valley Fever affecting many regions across sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley Fever virus, which normally arises from domesticated animals like camels, sheep, and goats (CDC, 2022). As an emerging mosquito-borne zoonotic viral infection, it has presented significant threats to global public health at large.

Prevention measures for RVF are essential to limit its occurrence and growth rate. Primary preventive measures

PUB 540 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each
PUB 540 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each

include sustained programs on animal vaccination due to the inexistence of an acceptable vaccination for humans. Secondary treatment approaches include avoiding contact with animal blood, fluids, or tissues infected with the RVF zoonotic virus (World Health Organization, 2018). Also, wearing protective equipment for people working with animals in RVF-stricken areas is encouraged by the WHO. Also, avoiding unsafe animal products like milk and meat during such an epidemic is further advised. At the same time, tertiary prevention means for RVF focus on decreasing the severity of the disease through thoroughly cooking animal products before consuming and avoiding outdoor activities during peak times when vector species bite.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2022). Rift Valley Fever (RVF)CDChttps://www.cdc.gov/vhf/rvf/about.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2022). Section 11: Epidemic Disease Occurrence. CDChttps://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section11.html.

World Health Organization. (2018). Rift Valley Fever. WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rift-valley-fever.

As described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an epidemic is an unanticipated rise and increase in disease case rates within a specified geographical area. In most cases, epidemics do not have to be contagious, for example, polio (CDC, 2022). On the other hand, a pandemic, as identified by the World Health Organization (WHO), refers to the exponential growth of disease through elevated rates of spread within days. In such a case, the WHO declares a pandemic and institutes preventable measures. Among the prime examples of pandemics include COVID-19. Further, an endemic relates to the instance where the outbreak of a disease is present consistently but limited within a particular region (CDC, 2022). For example, in the case of malaria, it may increase spontaneously in certain regions without necessarily being contagious.

Notably, a current epidemic affecting global health is the Rift Valley Fever affecting many regions across sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley Fever virus, which normally arises from domesticated animals like camels, sheep, and goats (CDC, 2022). As an emerging mosquito-borne zoonotic viral infection, it has presented significant threats to global public health at large.

Prevention measures for RVF are essential to limit its occurrence and growth rate. Primary preventive measures include sustained programs on animal vaccination due to the inexistence of an acceptable vaccination for humans. Secondary treatment approaches include avoiding contact with animal blood, fluids, or tissues infected with the RVF zoonotic virus (World Health Organization, 2018). Also, wearing protective equipment for people working with animals in RVF-stricken areas is encouraged by the WHO. Also, avoiding unsafe animal products like milk and meat during such an epidemic is further advised. At the same time, tertiary prevention means for RVF focus on decreasing the severity of the disease through thoroughly cooking animal products before consuming and avoiding outdoor activities during peak times when vector species bite.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2022). Rift Valley Fever (RVF)CDChttps://www.cdc.gov/vhf/rvf/about.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2022). Section 11: Epidemic Disease Occurrence. CDChttps://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section11.html.

World Health Organization. (2018). Rift Valley Fever. WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rift-valley-fever.

As described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an epidemic is an unanticipated rise and increase in disease case rates within a specified geographical area. In most cases, epidemics do not have to be contagious, for example, polio (CDC, 2022). On the other hand, a pandemic, as identified by the World Health Organization (WHO), refers to the exponential growth of disease through elevated rates of spread within days. In such a case, the WHO declares a pandemic and institutes preventable measures. Among the prime examples of pandemics include COVID-19. Further, an endemic relates to the instance where the outbreak of a disease is present consistently but limited within a particular region (CDC, 2022). For example, in the case of malaria, it may increase spontaneously in certain regions without necessarily being contagious.

Notably, a current epidemic affecting global health is the Rift Valley Fever affecting many regions across sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley Fever virus, which normally arises from domesticated animals like camels, sheep, and goats (CDC, 2022). As an emerging mosquito-borne zoonotic viral infection, it has presented significant threats to global public health at large.

Prevention measures for RVF are essential to limit its occurrence and growth rate. Primary preventive measures include sustained programs on animal vaccination due to the inexistence of an acceptable vaccination for humans. Secondary treatment approaches include avoiding contact with animal blood, fluids, or tissues infected with the RVF zoonotic virus (World Health Organization, 2018). Also, wearing protective equipment for people working with animals in RVF-stricken areas is encouraged by the WHO. Also, avoiding unsafe animal products like milk and meat during such an epidemic is further advised. At the same time, tertiary prevention means for RVF focus on decreasing the severity of the disease through thoroughly cooking animal products before consuming and avoiding outdoor activities during peak times when vector species bite.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2022). Rift Valley Fever (RVF)CDChttps://www.cdc.gov/vhf/rvf/about.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2022). Section 11: Epidemic Disease Occurrence. CDChttps://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section11.html.

World Health Organization. (2018). Rift Valley Fever. WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rift-valley-fever.