PUB 540 Discuss the steps involved in an outbreak investigation

PUB 540 Discuss the steps involved in an outbreak investigation

PUB 540 Discuss the steps involved in an outbreak investigation

Friis & Sellers (2021) discuss the process that Dr. Snow used in tracing the origin of cholera in 1854. The text lays out five major steps in investigating a disease outbreak. The steps are as follows: 1) define the problem as an actual outbreak in the community or potentially caused by a physiologic problem, the importance of getting this right is that this will cut down on time related to finding the origin of the outbreak; 2) evaluate the problem for what it is as compared to other events associated with a certain, time, place or person is important to determine where most cases are occurring, how long people after exposure are people getting sick, and also to allow testing of bodily waste to determine the cause; 3) come up with a working theory as to what is causing the problem, so that if you can figure out the cause, you then can come up with a way to control the outbreak as well ; 4) test the hypothesis by ruling out certain causes and come up with alternative causes to make sure the correct causes has been determined; and 5) based on the evidence at hand, draw conclusions as to the cause and put in place interventions to mitigate and potential cure the problem for long-term tracking and long-term control measures.

Webber, R. (2020) describes an outbreak as any time there are excessive deaths, unexplained clusters of disease presentation, excessive cases of disease in the population, there may be an outbreak of disease. The author describes steps that are both rational for each step and description together. Where treatment for the causes and interruption of transmission takes place together by the same interventions depending on the cause of the outbreak.

 

References

 

Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. (2020). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

 

Webber, R., (2020). 4.1 investigation of an outbreak. Communicable diseases: a global perspective (6th ed.). CABI. Credo Reference: https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/cabicd/4_1_investigation_of_an_outbreak/0?institutionId=5865 

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Friis & Sellers (2021) discuss the process that Dr. Snow used in tracing the origin of cholera in 1854. The text lays out five major steps in investigating a disease outbreak. The steps are as follows: 1) define the problem as an actual outbreak in the community or potentially caused by a physiologic problem, the importance of getting this right is that this will cut down on time related to finding the origin of the outbreak; 2) evaluate the problem for what it is as compared to other events associated with a certain, time, place or person is important to determine where most cases are occurring, how long people after exposure are people getting sick, and also to allow testing of bodily waste to determine the cause; 3) come up with a working theory as to what is causing the problem, so that if you can figure out the cause, you then can come up with a way to control the outbreak as well ; 4) test the hypothesis by ruling out certain causes and come up with alternative causes to make sure the correct causes has been determined; and 5) based on the evidence at hand, draw conclusions as to the cause and put in place interventions to mitigate and potential cure the problem for long-term tracking and long-term control measures.

Webber, R. (2020) describes an outbreak as any time there are excessive deaths, unexplained clusters of disease presentation, excessive cases of disease in the population, there may be an outbreak of disease. The author describes steps that are both rational for each step and description together. Where treatment for the causes and interruption of transmission takes place together by the same interventions depending on the cause of the outbreak.

 

References

 

Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. (2020). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

 

Webber, R., (2020). 4.1 investigation of an outbreak. Communicable diseases: a global perspective (6th ed.). CABI. Credo Reference: https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/cabicd/4_1_investigation_of_an_outbreak/0?institutionId=5865 

When it comes to outbreaks within the community investigations are very influential, as they assist the healthcare

PUB 540 Discuss the steps involved in an outbreak investigation
PUB 540 Discuss the steps involved in an outbreak investigation

professionals in learning more about the cause and outbreak of the disease. The investigations can mark the cause and provide the knowledge to the community. In order to control an outbreak and prevent additional illnesses it is important to recognize infections/ occurrences of the diseases and follow the appropriate steps. According to English, L (2017). The steps go as followed: Identify investigation team and resources, establish existence of an outbreak, verify the diagnosis and obstruct case definition, find cases systematically and develop line listing, Perform descriptive epidemiology/develop hypotheses, Evaluate hypotheses/perform additional studies as necessary and Implement control measures.

In step one , it’s important have the group of resources at a State and local level to allocate all consults and specialist to respond to appropriately, next establish the outbreak, this is important as this allows the investigators to get a sense of the true magnitude of the outbreak. Establishing the existence of an outbreak ,verify the diagnosis and obstruct case definition all assist the investors in identifying the characteristic of the illness including risk factors and cause. In finding cases systematically and develop line listing assist in gathering clinical data i.e.; Symptoms, onset dates and time, exposure information and demographic info. In performing descriptive epidemiology the primary focus is on person, place and time including the EPI curves which suggest the time & type of exposure . Next step is to Evaluate hypotheses/perform additional studies as necessary and Implement control measures during this stage of the investigation the focus is on studying the types, exposures equally among both ill and non-ill, exposures and in the control measures the aim is to prevent further diseases and encouraging isolation and all measures to control the outbreak (Moore, 2018). Following the proper steps during an outbreak investigation can assist the public health departments in allocating all the necessary resources and protect the community

 

Reference

L’Tanya, E (2017). Outbreaks and Infection Emergencies. Retrieved from: http://publichealth.lacounty.gov/acd/docs/DayTwo/OutbreakMan.pdf

 

Moore, Z,(2018).Outbreak Investigations: The 10-Step Approach. Retrieved from

https://epi.dph.ncdhhs.gov/cd/lhds/manuals/cd/training/module_1_1.6_ppt_outbreakinvestigation.pdf

An outbreak is a sudden increase in the number of cases of a health risk such as pathogenic agents, transmissible diseases, or infections (Houlihan & Whitworth, 2019). Outbreaks record a higher number of cases compared to the normally expected number. Outbreaks are similar to epidemics but are limited to a smaller geographical area. Outbreak investigation refers to a process of scrutinizing a new disease aiming to identify the cause, mode of transmission, and prevalent populations (Houlihan & Whitworth, 2019). The investigation process enables epidemiologists to identify relevant factors used in developing potentially effective treatment and preventive measures. According to Houlihan and Whitworth (2019), the steps involved in an outbreak investigation are as follows:

Step 1: This step involves establishing the presence of an outbreak (Houlihan & Whitworth, 2019). Healthcare providers can report unusual and unexpected presentations. For instance, caregivers can identify a disease outbreak after attending to a cluster of patients from a similar location presenting with unusual symptoms. Surveillance systems help monitor populations for early detection of outbreaks.

Step 2: Verifying the diagnosis

This step is significant in identifying disease pathogens. Samples are transported to laboratories for RNA and DNA amplification in cases where standard diagnostic tests are unsuccessful.

Step 3: Making a definition

This step is essential in ensuring cases are not missed. Despite the complexity of defining cases when diseases have non-specific symptoms, real-time analysis of case definitions helps capture all cases.

Step 4: Finding cases

This step involves the use of paper forms and electronic data-entry platforms to list, locate, and follow up on outbreak cases and contacts.

Step 5: Rapid diagnostic tests

Rapid diagnostic tests are significant in the quick identification of cases.

Step 6: This step involves the improvement of health systems by the provision of adequate resources, and improving laboratory systems, diagnostics, and treatment techniques.

Step 7: Descriptive epidemiology and hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing is significant in confirming the origin of an outbreak. Descriptive epidemiology helps define the population at risk, its geographical location, and the specific time of outbreak onset.

Step 8: Control measures and communication aiming at mitigating the disease outbreak.

Reference

Houlihan, C. F., & Whitworth, J. A. (2019). Outbreak science: Recent progress in the detection  and response to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinical Medicine (London, England)19(2), 140–144. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.19-2-140