PUB 550 Benchmark – Analyzing and Reporting Data

PUB 550 Benchmark – Analyzing and Reporting Data

PUB 550 Benchmark – Analyzing and Reporting Data

Abstract

Data analysis can reveal paths towards improving clinical data, patient care quality, business management, and diagnosis. Based on the two variables selected, the topic of the study is “Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight” From a theoretical perspective, it has been established that engagement in physical activities greatly leads to weight reduction. In other words, there is a correlation between weight and physical activities. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis is critical in revealing essential information required in the research process. In this case, the research aims to establish the relationship between physical activities and body weight. In most cases, physical activities are critical in enhancing an effective body weight as well as control of different complications associated with the body weight. The data collected is on the topic of nutrition. The quantitative data to be analyzed has been obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). On the other hand, the qualitative data has been obtained from the focus group transcript in which the 9th-grade girls discussed healthy eating.

Introduction

Analyzing and reporting data is essential in understanding different healthcare processes. Data analysis is critical in elaborating on some of the aspects and trends in public health diseases. Specifically, epidemiologists rely on healthcare data to enhance the formulation of policies that can enhance the management of the spread of diseases. Most healthcare organizations adhere to healthcare analytics, a process of analyzing historical and current industry data to predict trends, manage the spread of diseases and even improve outreach activities. Data analysis can reveal paths towards improving clinical data, patient care quality, business management, and diagnosis. For healthcare managers and hospitals, healthcare data analytics often provide information that can be applied in improving administrative and financial activities, better services provided, general patient care, as well as existing procedures. This assignment aims to analyze both quantitative and qualitative data from different groups, suggest research questions, and then disseminate findings in a mixed-method manuscript.

The data collected is on the topic of nutrition. The quantitative data to be analyzed has been obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). On the other hand, the qualitative data has been obtained from the focus group transcript in which the 9th-grade girls discussed healthy eating.

Part 1: Analyzing Data

 

Quantitative Methods (YRBSS Survey)

For quantitative data analysis, the dataset used was obtained from an already established dataset. There were different variables in the dataset, including age, gender, weight, levels or number of physical activities, etc. The data was collected from the participants aged between 12 years and 18. Additionally, some individuals above 18 years of age were also incorporated into the study process. The process of data collection involved the use of questionnaires to capture the participant’s perceptions. The variables applied in data analysis included the participants’ weight and the number of times an individual performs physical activities. Some of the descriptive statistics applied include mean, median, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, and frequencies. SPSS statistics was applied in the process of data analysis.

Quantitative Analysis:

The dataset, “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Dataset,” consists of different variables in the quantitative form. These variables can be analyzed to determine the relationships that exist between them. Also, these variables represent the responses obtained from the study participants. By observing two variables, it is easier for the researcher to formulate the topic of the research processes and develop research objectives as well as the research questions. From the dataset given, the two variables of interest include “Physical Activity (Q80)” and the Weight of the participant (Q7). With these two variables, it is easier to determine if there is any form of relationship between physical activities and an individual’s weight.

Based on the two variables selected, the topic of the study is “Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight” From a theoretical perspective, it has been established that engagement in physical activities greatly leads to weight reduction. In other words, there is a correlation between weight and physical activities. From past studies, regular physical activities are essential for good health; physical activity is particularly important for individuals trying to lose weight or maintain a healthy weight. In most cases, when losing weight, engagement in more physical activities increases the number of calories that the body utilizes or burns off. Physical activities increase the burning of calories, a scenario that often leads to calorie deficit and subsequent weight loss. People often experience weight loss as a result of the burning of already accumulated calories in the body; also, weight loss occurs as a result of the reduced calorie intake. However, research evidence suggests that the only way to maintain the weight loss is to be engaged in regular physical activities. Besides weight reduction, physical activities often reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Succicinlty, there is a close relationship between the weight of an individual and the physical activities.

Literature Search

Different published studies attempt to relate the weight of an individual with physical activities. Emerging literature shows the need to incorporate physical activities in every strategy or approach aimed at preventing weight gain and maintaining weight loss over a given duration. Physical activities need to be part of everyday life for an individual wishing to lose weight. According to Pandey et al. (2017), physical activities should be part of any plan of weight reduction. The stimulus of exercise often provides valuable metabolic adaptations that enhance macronutrient balance and energy. Sometimes, weight gain may be attributed to stress-induced factors. Regular physical activities are therefore associated with the reduction of stress-induced weight gain. When exercising to lose or maintain weight, there is always the need for more personalized approach programs. According to Mcleod et al. (2019), weight management varies significantly with an individual. In other words, weight differs significantly from the frequency of physical activities undertaken by an individual. According to the authors, physical activities, when maintained, can enhance weight management over a period. The type and degree of physical activities, however, differ with an individual. For an individual to lose weight and maintain a healthy body weight, adjusting diet and undertaking a high amount of physical activities is essential.

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Lack of physical activities often leads to overweight and even obesity. The increasing cases of obesity are attributed to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Keeping active by engaging in continuous physical activities can help people lose weight or stay at a healthy weight. Physical activities can also lower related complications such as heart attacks, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and certain types of cancer (Kraus et al., 2018). Even though physical activities have been shown to have great health benefits, globally, people are doing less to realize these benefits. Globally, only a few people are involved in physical activities to reduce or maintain a healthy weight (Kraus et al., 2018). Physical activities are declining among different populations in different countries. The decline is attributed to the increased economic activities, internet use, as well as other social factors.

Usually, weight gain, especially during childhood development, can increase the risks of different diseases and

PUB 550 Benchmark - Analyzing and Reporting Data
PUB 550 Benchmark – Analyzing and Reporting Data

complications. Sometimes, undertaking physical activities becomes too difficult for many people; given the profession and the number of activities that an individual has to undertake during the day, finding time to engage in physical activities often proves to be difficult. Some professions do not allow people to stay physically active; this explains the increasing cases of obesity and overweight above different populations (Lourenco et al., 2019). Numerous physical activities such as ruining, engaging in aerobics, and gym can greatly enhance the reduction in weight or eight loss. In most cases, it is very difficult for people who have a tendency to engage in physical exercises to record high body weight. Regular cardiovascular exercise can play a role in the reduction of different cases of stroke that has been on the rise in the recent past in Florida. Regular physical exercise often reduces cholesterols, which usually accumulate along the blood vessels, causing high blood pressure. The reduction in the accumulation of cholesterol enables blood to reach the brain cells, thereby reducing the instances of stroke.

Research Questions

  1. Is there a correlation between physical activities and weight
  2. What are some of the impacts of continuous physical activities on body weight?
  • To what extent do physical activities lead to the reduction or maintenance of healthy body weight?

Hypothesis

            Null Hypothesis (H0):  There are no significant impacts of physical activities on the body weight

Alternative Hypothesis (H1):  There are significant impacts of physical activities on

body weight

Data Analysis

Descriptive Statistics

 

Table 1: Descriptive Statistics for Body Weight

  N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
How much do you weigh 14358 33.57 180.99 67.7794 17.24204
Valid N (listwise) 14358        

 

From table 1, the mean weight of individuals involved in the research processes is 67.7794 kg. The maximum weight was 180.99 kg, while the minimum weight was 33.57 kg. The standard deviation for the mean weight is was 17.24204.

Table 2: Physical activity >= 5 days

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 0 days 2341 15.0 15.4 15.4
1 day 1126 7.2 7.4 22.7
2 days 1458 9.3 9.6 32.3
3 days 1745 11.2 11.4 43.8
4 days 1517 9.7 10.0 53.7
5 days 2169 13.9 14.2 67.9
6 days 996 6.4 6.5 74.5
7 days 3893 24.9 25.5 100.0
Total 15245 97.6 100.0  
Missing System 379 2.4    
Total 15624 100.0    

 

Table 2 shows the frequency distribution for the variable Q80, (number of days taken for physical activities).  The outcomes show that majority of the people are taking seven days of physical activities. In other words, 24.9% of the respondents are involved in seven days of physical activities. Only 6.4% of the respondents were involved in 6 days of physical activities. Also, 15% of the respondents were not involved in any form of physical activity.

 

                                                   Table 3: How old are you (Age)

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 12 years old or younger 43 .3 .3 .3
13 years old 17 .1 .1 .4
14 years old 1684 10.8 10.8 11.2
15 years old 3817 24.4 24.5 35.7
16 years old 4033 25.8 25.9 61.7
17 years old 3833 24.5 24.6 86.3
18 years old or older 2131 13.6 13.7 100.0
Total 15558 99.6 100.0  
Missing System 66 .4    
Total 15624 100.0    

 

Table 3 above shows the description of the age of participants. From the result obtained, the majority of the respondents were 16 years old. Only 13.6% of the individuals above 18 years of age participated in the study process. On the other hand, only 0.1% and 0.3% of the respondents were 13 years old and 12 years old and younger, respectively. Generally, the majority of the respondents were 14 years old and above.

Table 4: What is your sex (Gender)

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Female 7757 24.8 50.0 50.0
Male 7749 24.8 50.0 100.0
Total 15506 49.6 100.0  
Missing System 15782 50.4    
Total 31288 100.0    

 

Table 4 shows the frequency distribution based on gender. From the data analysis result, there was an equal representation of both genders. In other words, the total number of male and female participants were 7749 and 7757, respectively, with both constituting 24.8%.

Analysis of Variance

Table 5: ANOVA

Physical activity >= 5 days

 

  Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 2309.065 232 9.953 1.610 .000
Within Groups 85444.819 13825 6.180    
Total 87753.885 14057      

 

Table 5 shows the Analysis of variance between the variable weight and the physical activities. From the table, the significance value is given as 0.000, which is less than the critical t-value at 0.05. This shows that we reject the null hypothesis and use the alternative hypothesis to make a conclusion. In other words, the outcome shows that there are significant impacts of physical activities on body weight. Continuous engagement in physical activities is, therefore, an essential intervention in weight reduction. Also, continuous engagement in physicals activities is essential in maintaining healthy body weight. Physical activities, when maintained, can enhance weight management over a period. The type and degree of physical activities, however, differ with an individual. For an individual to lose weight and maintain a healthy body weight, adjusting diet and undertaking a high amount of physical activities is essential.

Part 2: Reporting Data

From the sample size provided, there were a total of 31288 respondents. In other words, the sample size used was 31288. Out of this number, 7757 were female while 7749 were male. The inferential used was ANOVA. The test was conducted to prove the hypothesis formulated. The significance value is given as 0.000, which is less than the critical t-value at 0.05. This shows that we reject the null hypothesis and use the alternative hypothesis to make a conclusion. In other words, the outcome shows that there are significant impacts of physical activities on body weight. Continuous engagement in physical activities is, therefore, an essential intervention in weight reduction. Also, continuous engagement in physicals activities is essential in maintaining healthy body weight.

Discussion

The outcomes show that majority of the people are taking seven days of physical activities. In other words, 24.9% of the respondents are involved in seven days of physical activities. Only 6.4% of the respondents were involved in 6 days of physical activities. Continuous engagement in physical activities is, therefore, an essential intervention in weight reduction. Also, continuous engagement in physicals activities is essential in maintaining healthy body weight. Physical activities, when maintained, can enhance weight management over a period. Lack of physical activities often leads to overweight and even obesity. The increasing cases of obesity are attributed to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Keeping active by engaging in continuous physical activities can help people lose weight or stay at a healthy weight.

Qualitative Methods (Focus Group)

The qualitative methodology involved the analysis of different favorite food materials. In other words, the qualitative approach involved the analysis of different nutritional patterns among the patients involved in the study. The qualitative approaches involve coding variables as illustrated in the conversation given. From the conversation, different phrases describe the nutritional patterns. The focus group in the qualitative analysis includes school-going children below the age of 18 years. In most cases, nutritional behaviors are instilled at a younger age, the groups of individuals involved in the study processes had different food preferences. The data has been drawn from the conversation that has been recorded. Specifically, the conversation is between the 9th-grade girls. The transcript that has been recorded reveals a lot of information about the eating patterns for the individuals in this age group.

 

Code Number Code Name Summary Describing Code
1 Pineapple A fruity diet that contains a high amount of nutritional values. Pineapple has weight-reducing elements that make it ideal for children and other people in different age categories. The use of pineapple as a weight-reducing agent is essential for some of the 9th-grade children
2 Peanut butter The non-fruit diet lacks essential elements required for weight reduction. The nutritional product is not ideal for those seeking healthy nutrition.
3 Healthy Diet Engaging in high-value nutritional products that mainly consist of fruits and other non-fatty foods. Grapes, pineapples form some of the healthy diets required for the healthy growth of children. Most of the children in the 9th grade prefer fruity foods that enhance healthy lifestyles.
4 Healthy lifestyles Engagement in healthy dieting, healthy lifestyle involved a balanced diet which ought to consist of different forms of nutritional products such as fruits.
5 Balance Diet Consumption of foods with balanced nutrients. A lance diet consists of different types of foods. In most cases, a balanced diet contains fruits which mainly consist of vitamins. Also, a balanced diet should consist of proteins, carbohydrates, as well as vitamins.

 

Data Collection processes

In qualitative research, there is always the use of qualitative data drawn from already published materials. In this case, the process of data collection was based on the conversation made among the 9th-grade girls. To fully capture the data, the conversation was transcribed and recorded in word format. Only the perception of the conversations involving the focused groups was transcribed and recorded in the word format. With this format, it has become easier to identify or isolate different phrases that can be applied in the determination of information. Also, the essential keywords were captured and recorded for easy analysis of the information presented. Qualitative analysis often involves coding the data using phrases and keywords that have been isolated from the literature.

The qualitative data analysis is based on the identification of the phrases and keywords that have been used. Through these phrases, it is easier to know the nutritional preferences of the 9th-grade girls that have been considered in the study process. The analysis process involved looking into the information presented in relating them to the past information published from different literature sources. Organization of information was applied to ensure that there is effective flow as well as easier identification of the keywords and phrases. Also, the processes of analysis involved translating the information and the hidden meaning of phrases used in the conversation. In most cases, data collection processes involve determining different approaches that can be applied in the translation of information being presented. It is possible to retrieve ideal information to be applied in the analysis processes by identifying the hidden meaning of the information being presented from the sources of information used.

 

Qualitative Results (Focus Group)

The qualitative analysis shows that good nutritional activities are essential in weight reduction. Qualitative analysis is critical in understanding different aspects of the information being presented. For the 9th grade learners, engagement in healthy nutritional behaviors is critical in ensuring that there is the achievement of healthy growth patterns. Good nutritional behaviors should, however, be coupled to other activities such as physical exercises. Behavior change is essential in reducing the cases of obesity and overweight that continue to impact many people across the globe. From the qualitative analysis presented, a balanced diet is an essential practice that is required in attaining good nutritional behaviors. Engaging in high-value nutritional products that mainly consist of fruits and other non-fatty foods. Grapes, pineapples form some of the healthy diets required for the healthy growth of children. Most of the children in the 9th grade prefer fruity foods that enhance healthy lifestyles. Consumption of foods with balanced nutrients. A lance diet consists of different types of foods. In most cases, a balanced diet contains fruits which mainly consist of vitamins. Also, a balanced diet should consist of proteins, carbohydrates, as well as vitamins.

Conclusion

From the quantitative data analysis, physical activities, when maintained, can enhance weight management over a period. Lack of physical activities often leads to overweight and even obesity. In public health, data and information are usually gathered from different groups; the dataset obtained is then applied in the description of health-related behaviors for a given topic of interest. Practically, large sample sizes are always surveyed, and then smaller sample sizes are developed to enhance the study outcomes. The quantitative survey data obtained from larger groups often aids in identifying health-related trends and patterns within the sample group. The qualitative data can also be applied can sometimes be used to complement the quantitative survey data to enhance the determination of how and why a given phenomenon exists. The cumulative findings can then allow public health professionals to form a conclusion about a given healthcare issue and enhance the formulation of different policies.

References

American Diabetes Association. (2019). 5. Lifestyle management: medical care standards in diabetes—2019. Diabetes care42(Supplement 1), S46-S60. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-S005

Kraus, W. E., Janz, K. F., Powell, K. E., Campbell, W. W., Jakicic, J. M., Troiano, R. P., … & 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2019). Daily step counts for measuring physical activity exposure and its relation to health. Medicine and science in sports and exercise51(6), 1206. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6527133/

Lourenco, M. V., Frozza, R. L., de Freitas, G. B., Zhang, H., Kincheski, G. C., Ribeiro, F. C., … & De Felice, F. G. (2019). Exercise-linked FNDC5/irisin rescues synaptic plasticity and memory defects in Alzheimer’s models. Nature medicine25(1), 165-175. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-018-0275-4

Mcleod, J. C., Stokes, T., & Phillips, S. M. (2019). Resistance exercise training as a primary countermeasure to age-related chronic disease. Frontiers in Physiology10, 645. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.00645/full?utm_source=F-NTF&utm_medium=EMLX&utm_campaign=PRD_FEOPS_20170000_ARTICLE

Pandey, A., LaMonte, M., Klein, L., Ayers, C., Psaty, B. M., Eaton, C. B., … & Berry, J. D. (2017). Relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and risk of heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology69(9), 1129-1142. https://www.jacc.org/doi/full/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.11.081